How Aroids Turn Up the Heat

4197953814_0f2f22ce07_o.jpg

A subset of plants have evolved the ability to produce heat, a fact that may come as a surprise to many reading this. The undisputed champions of botanical thermogenesis are the aroids (Araceae). Exactly why they do so is still the subject of scientific debate but the means by which heat is produced is absolutely fascinating.

The heat producing organ of an aroid is called the spadix. Technically speaking, a spadix is a spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis. All aroid inflorescences have one and they come in a wide variety of shapes, colors, and textures. To produce heat, the spadix is hooked up to a massive underground energy reserve largely in the form of carbohydrates or sugars. The process of turning these sugars into heat is rather complex and surprisingly animal-like.

Cross section of a typical aroid inflorescence with half of the protective spathe removed. The spadix is situated in the middle with a rings of protective hairs (top), male flowers (middle), and female flowers (bottom).

Cross section of a typical aroid inflorescence with half of the protective spathe removed. The spadix is situated in the middle with a rings of protective hairs (top), male flowers (middle), and female flowers (bottom).

It all starts with a compound we are rather familiar with - salicylic acid - as it is the main ingredient in Aspirin. In aroids, however, salicylic acid acts as a hormone whose job it is to initiate both the heating process as well as the production of floral scents. It signals the mitochondria packed inside a ring of sterile flowers located at the base of the spadix to change their metabolic pathway.

In lieu of their normal metabolic pathway, which ends in the production of ATP, the mitochondria switch over to a pathway called the "Alternative Oxidase Metabolic Pathway." When this happens, the mitochondria start burning sugars using oxygen as a fuel source. This form of respiration produces heat.

Thermal imaging of the inflorescence of  Arum maculatum .

Thermal imaging of the inflorescence of Arum maculatum.

As you can imagine, this can be a costly process for plants to undergo. A lot of energy is consumed as the inflorescence heats up. Nonetheless, some aroids can maintain this costly level of respiration intermittently for weeks on end. Take the charismatic skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus) for example. Its spadix can reach temperatures of upwards of 45 °F (7 °C) on and and off for as long as two weeks. Even more incredible, the plant is able to do this despite freezing ambient temperatures, literally melting its way through layers of snow.

For some aroids, however, carbohydrates just don't cut it. Species like the Brazilian Philodendron bipinnatifidum produce a staggering amount of floral heat and to do so requires a different fuel source - fat. Fats are not a common component of plant metabolisms. Plants simply have less energy requirements than most animals. Still, this wonderful aroid has converged on a fat-burning metabolic pathway that puts many animals to shame. 

The inflorescence of  Philodendron bipinnatifidum  can reach temps as high as 115 °F (46 °C)

The inflorescence of Philodendron bipinnatifidum can reach temps as high as 115 °F (46 °C)

P. bipinnatifidum stores lots of fat in sterile male flowers that are situated between the fertile male and female flowers near the base of the spadix. As soon as the protective spathe opens, the spadix bursts into metabolic action. As the sun starts to set and P. bipinnatifidum's scarab beetle pollinators begin to wake up, heat production starts to hit a crescendo. For about 20 to 40 minutes, the inflorescence of P. bipinnatifidum reaches temperatures as high as 95 °F (35 °C) with one record breaker maxing out at 115 °F (46 °C)! Amazingly, this process is repeated again the following night.

It goes without saying that burning fat at a rate fast enough to reach such temperatures requires a lot of oxygen. Amazingly, for the two nights it is in bloom, the P. bipinnatifidum inflorescence consumes oxygen at a rate comparable to that of a flying hummingbird, which are some of the most metabolically active animals on Earth.

The world's largest inflorescence belongs to the titan arum ( Amorphophallus titanum ) and it too produces heat.

The world's largest inflorescence belongs to the titan arum (Amorphophallus titanum) and it too produces heat.

Again, why these plants go through the effort of heating their reproductive structures is still a bit of a mystery. For most, heat likely plays a role in helping to volatilize floral scents. Anyone that has spent time around blooming aroids knows that this plant family produces a wide range of odors from sweet and spicy to downright offensive. By warming these compounds, the plant may be helping to lure in pollinators from a greater distance away. It is also thought that the heat may be an attractant in and of itself. This is especially true for temperate species like the aforementioned skunk cabbage, which frequently bloom during colder months of the year. Likely both play a role to one degree or another throughout the aroid family.

What we can say is that the process of plant thermogenesis is absolutely fascinating and well worth deeper investigation. We still have much to learn about this charismatic group of plants.

LEARN MORE ABOUT AROID POLLINATION HERE

Photo Credits: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

Further Reading: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]

 

The Intriguing Pollination of a Central American Anthurium

IMG_2257.JPG

As an avid gardener of both indoors and out, there are few better experiences than getting to see familiar plants growing in the wild for the first time. That experience is made all the better when you find out new and interesting facts about their ecology. On a recent trip to Costa Rica, I was introduced to a wide variety of Anthurium species. I marveled at how amazing these plants look in situ and was taken aback to learn that many produce flowers with intoxicating aromas.

I was also extremely fortunate to be in the presence of some aroid experts during this trip and their knowledge fueled my interest in getting up close and personal with what little time I had with these plants. They were able to ID the plants and introduce me to their biology. One species in particular has been the subject of interest in an ongoing pollination study that has proven to be unique.

IMG_8379.JPG

The plant in question is known scientifically as Anthurium acutifolium and it is rather charming once you get to know it. It is a terrestrial plant with relatively large leaves for its overall size. Its range includes portions of lowland Costa Rica and Panama. Its flowers are typical of what one would expect out of this family. They are fused into a type of inflorescence known as a spadix and can range in color from white to green and occasionally red. If you are lucky to visit the spadix between roughly 8:00 AM and 12:30 PM, you may notice a rich scent that, to me, is impossible to describe in words.

It's this scent that sets the stage for pollination in this species. During some down time, University of Vienna grad student Florian Etl discovered that the spadix of A. acutifolium was getting a lot of attention from a particular species of small bee. Closer inspection revealed that they were all males of a species of oil-collecting bee known as Paratetrapedia chocoensis. Now, the females of these oil collecting bees are well known in the pollination literature. They visit flowers that secrete special oils that the females then use to build nests and feed their young. This is why the attention from male bees was so intriguing.

A: A male  P. chocoensis  bee approaching a scented spadix of an inflorescence of  A. acutifolium . B: The abdominal mopping behavior of male  P. chocoensis  oil bees on a spadix. C: Ventral side of the abdomen of a male  P.chocoensis  covered with pollen. D: A male  P. chocoensis  bee on a spadix of an inflorescence of  A. acutifolium , touching the pollen shedding anthers. E: Pubescent region pressed on the surface of  A. acutifolium  during the mopping behavior. F: A scented inflorescence of  A. acutifolium  with three male  P. chocoensis  individuals. G: Image of the abdomen of a male  P.chocensis  in lateral view showing the conspicuous pubescent region. ( SOURCE )

A: A male P. chocoensis bee approaching a scented spadix of an inflorescence of A. acutifolium. B: The abdominal mopping behavior of male P. chocoensis oil bees on a spadix. C: Ventral side of the abdomen of a male P.chocoensis covered with pollen. D: A male P. chocoensis bee on a spadix of an inflorescence of A. acutifolium, touching the pollen shedding anthers. E: Pubescent region pressed on the surface of A. acutifolium during the mopping behavior. F: A scented inflorescence of A. acutifolium with three male P. chocoensis individuals. G: Image of the abdomen of a male P.chocensis in lateral view showing the conspicuous pubescent region. (SOURCE)

Males would land on the spadix and begin rubbing the bottom of their abdomen along its surface. In doing so, they inevitably picked up and deposited pollen. To date, such behavior was unknown among male oil bees. What exactly were these male bees up to?

As it turns out, the males were collecting fragrances. Close inspection of their morphology revealed that each male has a small patch of dense hairs underneath their abdomen. The males are definitely not after fatty oils or nectar as A. acutifolium does not secrete either of these substances. Instead, it would appear that the male oil bees are there to collect scent, which is mopped up by that dense patch of hairs. Even more remarkable is the fact that in order to properly collect these fragrance compounds, the bees are likely using solvents that they have collected from other flowering plant species around the forest.

IMG_8390.JPG

What they are doing with these scent compounds remains a mystery but some potential clues lie in another scent/pollination system. Male orchid bees perform similar scent-collecting activities in order to procure unique scent bouquets. Though the exact function of their scent collecting is not known either, we do know that these scents are used in the process of finding and procuring mates. It is likely that these male oil bees are using them in a similar way.

Taken together, these data suggest that a very specific pollination syndrome involving A. acutifolium and male oil bees has evolved in Central American forests. No other insects were observed visiting the flowers of A. acutifolium and the scents only ever attracted males of these specific oil bees during the hours in which the spadix was actively producing the compounds. This is a remarkable pollination syndrome and one that encourages us to start looking elsewhere in the forest. This, my friends, is why there is no substitute for simply taking the time to observe nature. We must take the time to get outside and poke around because we stand to miss out on so much of what makes our world tick and without such knowledge, we risk losing so much. 

Photo Credits: Florian Etl [1]

Further Reading: [1]