Resisting the Wind

Have you ever wondered how some plants can withstand heavy winds? At lease one group, the cattails, produce specialized support structures within their cells to cope with winds. This is great, especially when growing near a large, windy water source.

A team of researchers recently took a much closer look at the leaf cells of a variety of cattail species (genus Typha). For decades, there has been knowledge of fibers that traverse the air chambers within the cells. These have largely been ignored but as it turns out, they indeed serve a purpose.

 (A) Longitudinal section showing the fibre cables anchored in diaphragms composed of aerenchyma tissue. (B) Longitudinal section showing the fibre cables anchored in diaphragms composed of aerenchyma tissue. (C) Cross section. The thick ventral (v)and dorsal (d) surfaces of the leaf are separated by thick partitions (P) that run the length of the leaf. Thin diaphragms (D) connected perpendicular to the thick partitionsare traversed by very fine fibre cables (FC), which are anchored to them. This construction has often been compared to sandwich-type construction, giving a low-density structure of high stiffness and strength (Rowlatt and Morshead, 1992)

(A) Longitudinal section showing the fibre cables anchored in diaphragms composed of aerenchyma tissue. (B) Longitudinal section showing the fibre cables anchored in diaphragms composed of aerenchyma tissue. (C) Cross section. The thick ventral (v)and dorsal (d) surfaces of the leaf are separated by thick partitions (P) that run the length of the leaf. Thin diaphragms (D) connected perpendicular to the thick partitionsare traversed by very fine fibre cables (FC), which are anchored to them. This construction has often been compared to sandwich-type construction, giving a low-density structure of high stiffness and strength (Rowlatt and Morshead, 1992)

As any good engineer will tell you, if a structure is to remain sound, it needs multiple avenues in which stress can be redistributed. The same goes for living structures like leaves. The fibers are arranged within the cells makes them quite strong under tension. In this way, multiple load paths are created to distribute the stress of high winds on the leaves. We like to take credit for most of our ideas but, time and again, nature beat us to it first.

Photo Credit: [1] [2]

Further Reading: [1]

What Are Plants Made Of?

Have you ever thought about what plants are made of? I mean, really thought about it. Strip away all the splendor and glory of all the different plant species on this planet and really take a close look at how plants grow and make more plants. It is a fascinating realm and it all has to do with photosynthesis. To go from photons given off by our nearest star to a full grown plant is quite the journey and, at the end of that journey, you may be surprised to learn what plants are all about.

It starts with photons. Leaving the sun they travel out into the universe. Some eventually collide with Earth and make their way to the surface. Plants position their leaves to absorb these photons. Energy from the photons is used to split water molecules inside the chloroplasts. In the process of splitting water, oxygen is released as a byproduct (thanks plants!). Splitting water also releases electrons and hydrogen ions.

These electrons and hydrogen ions are used to make energy in the form of ATP. Along with some electrons, ATP is then used in another cycle known as the Calvin cycle. The point of the Calvin cycle is to take in CO2 and use the energy created prior to reduce carbon molecules into chains of organic molecules. Most of the carbon in a plant comes from the intake of CO2. Through a series of steps (I will spare you the details) plants piece together carbon atoms into long chains. Some of these chains form glucose and some of that glucose gets linked together into cellulose.

Cellulose is the main structural component of plant cells. From the smallest plants in the world (genus Wolffia) all the way up to the largest and tallest redwoods and sequoias (incidentally some of the largest organisms to have ever existed on this planet) , all of them are built out of cellulose. So, in essence, all the plant life you see out there is literally built from the ground up by carbon originating from CO2 gas. Pretty incredible stuff, wouldn't you agree?

The Trumpet Creeper

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With its impressive bulk and those stunning tubular red flowers, one would be excused for thinking that the trumpet creeper (Campsis radicans) was a tropical vine. Indeed, the family to which it belongs, Bignoniaceae, is largely tropical in its distribution. There are a handful of temperate representatives, however, and the trumpet creeper is one of the most popular. Its beauty aside, this plant is absolutely fascinating.

As many of you probably know, the trumpet creeper can reach massive proportions. In the garden, this can often result in collapsed structures as its weight and speed of growth is something few adequately prepare for. In the wild, I most often see this vine in somewhat disturbed forests, usually near a floodplain. As such, it is supremely adapted to take a hit and keep on growing year after year.

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One of the many reasons this plant performs so well both where it is native and where it is not is that it recruits body guards. This is easy to witness in a garden setting as the branches and especially the flowers are frequently crawling with ants. Trumpet creepers trade food for protection via specialized organs called extrafloral nectaries. These structures secrete sugary nectar that is readily sucked up by tenacious ants. When a worker ant finds a vine, more workers are soon to follow. 

Amazingly for a temperate plant, trumpet creepers produce more extrafloral nectaries of all four categories - petiole, calyx, corolla, and fruit. What this means is that all of the important organs are covered in insects that viciously attack anything that might threaten this sugary food supply. Hassle one of these vines at your own peril. With its photosynthetic and reproductive structures protected, trumpet creepers make a nice living once established.

Reproduction is another fascinating aspect of trumpet creeper biology. A closer inspection of the floral anatomy will reveal a bilobed stigma. Amazingly, this stigma has the ability to open and close as potential pollinators visit the flowers. Stigmatic movement in the trumpet creeper has attracted a bit of attention from researchers over the years. What is its function?

Evidence suggests that the opening and closing of the lobed stigma is way of increasing the chances of pollination. Touch alone is not enough to trigger the movement. However, when researchers dusted pollen onto the stigma, then it began to close. What's more, this action happens within 15 to 60 seconds. Amazingly, there appears to be a threshold to whether the stigma stays closed or reopens after 3 hours or so.

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It turns out, the threshold seems to depend on the amount of pollen being deposited. Only after 350 grains found their way onto the stigma did it close permanently. Experts feel that this a means by which the plant ensured ample seed set. If too few pollen grains end up on the stigma, the plant risks not having all of its ovules fertilized. By permanently closing after enough pollen grains are present, the plant can ensure that the pollen grains can germinate and fertilize the ovules without being brushed off.

It is interesting to note that the flowers frequently remain on the plant after they have been fertilized. This likely serves to maintain a largely floral display that continues to attract pollinators until most of the flowers have been pollinated. Speaking of pollinators, observations have revealed that the trumpet creeper is pollinated primarily by ruby-throated hummingbirds. Although insects like bumblebees frequently visit these blooms, bringing pollen with them in the process, hummingbirds, on average, bring and deposit 10 times as much pollen as any other visitor. And, considering the threshold on pollen mentioned above, trumpet creeper appears to have evolved a pollination syndrome with these lovely little birds.

Photo Credits: [1] [2] [3] [4]

Further Reading: [1] [2] [3] [4]

Big Things Come In Small Packages

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Meet Blossfeldia liliputana, the smallest species of cactus in the world. With a maximum diameter of only 12 mm, this wonderful succulent would be hard to spot tucked in among the nooks and crannies of rock outcrops. Its species name "liliputana" is a reference to the fictional island of Liliput (Gulliver's Travels) whose inhabitants were said to be rather small. If its size alone wasn't interesting in and of itself, the biology of B. liliputana is also downright bizarre.

B. liliputana is native to arid regions between southern Bolivia and northern Argentina. It appears to prefer growing wedged between cracks in rock as these are usually the spots where just enough soil builds up to put down its roots. Root formation, however, does not happen for quite some time. Most often new individuals bud off from the parent plant. They emerge not from the base, but rather from apical tissues, yet another unique feature of this cactus. What's more, this cactus produces no spines. Instead, its numerous areoles are covered in a dense layer of trichomes that are rather felt-like to the touch.

As you can clearly see, this species is small. It only ever becomes conspicuous when it comes time to flower. Imagine a bunch of tiny white to pink cactus flowers poking out of a crevice. It must be a remarkable sight to see in person. Despite their showy appearance, its is believed that most are self-fertilized.

As mentioned, the size of this cactus isn't the only interesting thing about its biology. B. liliputana is categorized as a poikilohydric organism, meaning it doesn't have the ability to regulate its internal water content. Researchers have found that individual plants can lose up to 80% of their weight in water and can maintain that state for as long as two years without any negative effects. As such, colonies of these tiny cacti often appear shrunken or squished. Once the rains arrive, however, it springs back to its original rounded shape with seemingly no issues. Amazingly, a significant amount of water uptake happens via the fuzzy areoles that cover its surface, hence it does not harm the plant to hold off growing roots for quite some time. 

Speaking of water regulation, B. liliputana holds another record for having the lowest density of stomata of any terrestrial autotrophic vascular plant. Stomata are the pores in which plants regulate water and gas exchange so having so few may have something to do with why this species loses and gains water to such a degree that would kill most other vascular plant species.

Another peculiar quality of this cactus are its seeds. Unlike all other cacti whose seeds are hard and relatively smooth, the seeds of B. liliputana are hairy. Attached to each seed is a small fleshy structure called an aril, which aids in seed dispersal. As it turns out, B. liliputana relies on ants as its main seed dispersers. Ants attracted to the fleshy aril drag the seeds back to their nests, remove and eat the aril, and then discard the seed. This is often good news for the cactus because its seeds end up in nutrient-rich ant middens protected from both the elements and seed predators, often in much more suitable conditions for germination.

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Needless to say, B. liliputana is a bit of an oddball as far as cacti are concerned. Its highly derived features coupled with its bizarre biology has made it difficult for taxonomists to elucidate its relationship to the rest of the cactus family. It certainly deserves its own genus, to which it is the only member, however, it has been added to and removed form a handful of cactus subfamilies over the years. The most recent genetic analyses suggests that it is unique enough to warrant its own tribe within Cactaceae - Blossfeldieae.

Photo Credits: [1] [2] [3] [4]

Further Reading: [1] [2] [3]

Aloe or Agave?

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Convergent evolution is the process by which unrelated organisms evolve similar traits in response to similar environmental constraints. One amazing example of convergent evolution has occurred among the Aloe and Agave. These two distinct lineages are separated both in space and time and yet they often look so similar that it can be hard for the average person to tell them apart. With that in mind, lets consider the similarities and differences between these two lineages.

To start, Aloe and Agave hail from two completely different spots on the botanical family tree. Each also has its own unique geographic origin. Agave is a New World genus with species ranging in their distribution from tropical South America north into arid portions of North America. Genetic analysis places the genus Agave in the family Asparagaceae.

  Agave americana  in bloom

Agave americana in bloom

Aloe, on the other hand, enjoys an Old World distribution, from Africa and Madagascar to the Arabian Peninsula as well as many islands scattered throughout the Indian Ocean. Taxonomically speaking, Aloe has undergone more than a few revisions through time, however, recent genetic work suggests that the Aloe belong to the family Asphodelaceae.

Experts believe that the lineages that gave rise to these two distinct genera branched off from a common ancestor some 93 million years ago. Despite all of that intervening time and space, the rigors of their arid habitats have managed to shape these plants in strikingly similar ways. Morphologically speaking, there is a lot of superficial similarity between Aloe and Agave.

  Aloe hereroensis in situ

Aloe hereroensis in situ

Both groups exhibit water-storing, succulent leaves arranged in rosettes. These leaves are often adorned with spines or other protrusions aimed at deterring herbivores. Both groups also utilize CAM photosynthesis for their energy needs. When it comes time to flower, both groups frequently produce brightly colored, tubular flowers arranged at the tip of long stalks.

It is worth noting that the harsh environments that have shaped these two plant lineages also seems to have induced a backup plan for reproduction. Both Aloe and Agave produce tiny offshoots called "pups." These pups gain nourishment from the parent plant until they are large enough to fend for themselves. All pups are clones but if the parent plant had what it takes to survive in that spot, there is a good chance that its cloned offspring will as well. That way, even if sexual reproduction fails, these cloned progeny will get another shot.

Despite all of this convergence, these two lineages nonetheless exhibit vastly different developmental pathways and thus there are plenty of differences separating the two. For starters, slice into the leaves of each type and you will quickly find one major morphological difference. As many already know, Aloe leaves are largely filled with a gooey pulp and not much else. Aloe leaves function as water storage organs. Agave also store plenty of liquid in their leaves, however, they also produce numerous long strands of fiber that provide much more structural integrity.

 Cross section of an Aloe leaf showing gelatinous pulp.

Cross section of an Aloe leaf showing gelatinous pulp.

 Agave leaf showing fibrous interior.

Agave leaf showing fibrous interior.

Aloe and Agave each have evolved their own reproductive strategies as well. Aloe are perennial bloomers. Under the right conditions, many Aloe species will produce a profusion of flower stalks year after year. The stalks emerge from between the leaves and are largely pollinated by birds and insects in their native habitats. Agave, on the other hand, are monocarpic meaning they invest all of their energy into one single bloom. The Agave flowering stalk emerges from the center of the rosette and are pollinated by myriad insects, birds, and even bats. After flowering is complete, the main Agave plant dies.

 Aloe flowers

Aloe flowers

 Agave flowers

Agave flowers

Convergent evolution will never cease to amaze me. Despite millions of years and hundreds of miles separating these two lineages, Aloe and Agave have nonetheless been shaped in similar ways by similar environmental conditions.

Photo Credits: Wikimedia Commons

Further Reading: [1]

How Aroids Turn Up the Heat

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A subset of plants have evolved the ability to produce heat, a fact that may come as a surprise to many reading this. The undisputed champions of botanical thermogenesis are the aroids (Araceae). Exactly why they do so is still the subject of scientific debate but the means by which heat is produced is absolutely fascinating.

The heat producing organ of an aroid is called the spadix. Technically speaking, a spadix is a spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis. All aroid inflorescences have one and they come in a wide variety of shapes, colors, and textures. To produce heat, the spadix is hooked up to a massive underground energy reserve largely in the form of carbohydrates or sugars. The process of turning these sugars into heat is rather complex and surprisingly animal-like.

 Cross section of a typical aroid inflorescence with half of the protective spathe removed. The spadix is situated in the middle with a rings of protective hairs (top), male flowers (middle), and female flowers (bottom).

Cross section of a typical aroid inflorescence with half of the protective spathe removed. The spadix is situated in the middle with a rings of protective hairs (top), male flowers (middle), and female flowers (bottom).

It all starts with a compound we are rather familiar with - salicylic acid - as it is the main ingredient in Aspirin. In aroids, however, salicylic acid acts as a hormone whose job it is to initiate both the heating process as well as the production of floral scents. It signals the mitochondria packed inside a ring of sterile flowers located at the base of the spadix to change their metabolic pathway.

In lieu of their normal metabolic pathway, which ends in the production of ATP, the mitochondria switch over to a pathway called the "Alternative Oxidase Metabolic Pathway." When this happens, the mitochondria start burning sugars using oxygen as a fuel source. This form of respiration produces heat.

 Thermal imaging of the inflorescence of  Arum maculatum .

Thermal imaging of the inflorescence of Arum maculatum.

As you can imagine, this can be a costly process for plants to undergo. A lot of energy is consumed as the inflorescence heats up. Nonetheless, some aroids can maintain this costly level of respiration intermittently for weeks on end. Take the charismatic skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus) for example. Its spadix can reach temperatures of upwards of 45 °F (7 °C) on and and off for as long as two weeks. Even more incredible, the plant is able to do this despite freezing ambient temperatures, literally melting its way through layers of snow.

For some aroids, however, carbohydrates just don't cut it. Species like the Brazilian Philodendron bipinnatifidum produce a staggering amount of floral heat and to do so requires a different fuel source - fat. Fats are not a common component of plant metabolisms. Plants simply have less energy requirements than most animals. Still, this wonderful aroid has converged on a fat-burning metabolic pathway that puts many animals to shame. 

 The inflorescence of  Philodendron bipinnatifidum  can reach temps as high as 115 °F (46 °C)

The inflorescence of Philodendron bipinnatifidum can reach temps as high as 115 °F (46 °C)

P. bipinnatifidum stores lots of fat in sterile male flowers that are situated between the fertile male and female flowers near the base of the spadix. As soon as the protective spathe opens, the spadix bursts into metabolic action. As the sun starts to set and P. bipinnatifidum's scarab beetle pollinators begin to wake up, heat production starts to hit a crescendo. For about 20 to 40 minutes, the inflorescence of P. bipinnatifidum reaches temperatures as high as 95 °F (35 °C) with one record breaker maxing out at 115 °F (46 °C)! Amazingly, this process is repeated again the following night.

It goes without saying that burning fat at a rate fast enough to reach such temperatures requires a lot of oxygen. Amazingly, for the two nights it is in bloom, the P. bipinnatifidum inflorescence consumes oxygen at a rate comparable to that of a flying hummingbird, which are some of the most metabolically active animals on Earth.

 The world's largest inflorescence belongs to the titan arum ( Amorphophallus titanum ) and it too produces heat.

The world's largest inflorescence belongs to the titan arum (Amorphophallus titanum) and it too produces heat.

Again, why these plants go through the effort of heating their reproductive structures is still a bit of a mystery. For most, heat likely plays a role in helping to volatilize floral scents. Anyone that has spent time around blooming aroids knows that this plant family produces a wide range of odors from sweet and spicy to downright offensive. By warming these compounds, the plant may be helping to lure in pollinators from a greater distance away. It is also thought that the heat may be an attractant in and of itself. This is especially true for temperate species like the aforementioned skunk cabbage, which frequently bloom during colder months of the year. Likely both play a role to one degree or another throughout the aroid family.

What we can say is that the process of plant thermogenesis is absolutely fascinating and well worth deeper investigation. We still have much to learn about this charismatic group of plants.

LEARN MORE ABOUT AROID POLLINATION HERE

Photo Credits: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

Further Reading: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]

 

The Rose of Jericho

To survive in a desert, plants must eek out an existence in specific microclimates that provide conditions that are only slightly better than the surrounding landscape. Such is the case for the Rose of Jericho (Anastatica hierochuntica). This tenacious little mustard is found throughout arid regions of the Middle East and the Saharan Desert and it has been made famous the world over for its "resurrection" abilities. It is also the subject of much speculation so today we are going to separate fact from fiction and reveal what years of research has taught about this desert survivor. 

Natural selection has shaped this species into an organism fully ready to take advantage of those fleeting moments when favorable growing conditions present themselves. A. hierochuntica makes its living in dry channels called runnels or wadis, which concentrate water during periods of rain. It is a desert annual meaning the growth period of any individual is relatively short. Once all the water in the sandy soil has evaporated, this plant shrivels up and dies. This is not the end of its story though. With a little luck, the plants were pollinated and multiple spoon-shaped fruits have formed on its stems.

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As the dead husk of the plant starts to dry out, its branches curl up into a ball-like mass with most of the fruits tucked away in the interior. There the plant will sit, often for many years, until rain returns. When rain does finally arrive, things happen fast. After all, who knows how long it will be before it rains again. Thanks to a quirk of physiology, the dried tissues of A. hierochuntica are extremely elastic and can return to their normal shape and position once hydrated. As the soil soaks up water, the dried up stems and roots just under the surface also begin taking up water and the stems unfurl.

To call this resurrection is being a bit too generous. The plant is not returning to life. Instead, its dead tissues simply expand as they imbibe liquid. Water usually does not come to the desert without rain and rain is exactly what A. hierochuntica needs to complete its life cycle. Unfurling of its stems exposes its spoon-shaped fruits to the elements. Their convex shape is actually an adaptation for seed dispersal by rain, a mechanism termed ombrohydrochory. When a raindrop hits the fruit, it catapults the seed outward from the dead parent.

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If rains are light, seeds do not get very far. They tend to cluster around the immediate area of their parent. If rains are heavy, however, seeds can travel quite a distance. This is why one will only ever find this species growing in channels. During the rare occasions when those channels fill with water, seeds quickly float away on the current. In fact, experts believe that the buoyancy of A. hierochuntica seed is an adaptation that evolved in response to flooding events. It is quite ironic that water dispersal is such an important factor for a plant growing in some of the driest habitats on Earth.

To aid in germination, the seeds themselves are coated in a material that becomes mucilaginous upon wetting. When the seeds eventually come into contact with the soil, the mucilage sticks to the ground and causes the seeds to adhere to the surface upon drying. This way, they are able to effectively germinate instead of blowing around in the wind.

Again, things happen fast for A. hierochuntica. Most of its seeds will germinate within 12 hours of rainfall. Though they are relatively drought tolerant, the resulting seedlings nonetheless cannot survive without water. As such, their quick germination allows them to make the most out of fleeting wet conditions.

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Occasionally, the balled up husks of these plants will become dislodged from the sand and begin to blow around the landscape like little tumbleweeds. This has led some to suggest that A. hierochuntica utilizes this as a form a seed dispersal, scattering seeds about the landscape as it bounces around in the wind. Though this seems like an appealing hypothesis, experts believe that this is not the best means of disseminating propagules. Seeds dispersed in this way are much less likely to end up in favorable spots for germination. Though it certainly occurs, it is likely that this is just something that happens from time to time rather than something the plant has evolved to do.

In total, the Rose of Jericho is one tough cookie. Thanks to quick germination and growth, it is able to take advantage of those rare times when its desert environment become hospitable.

Photo Credits: [1] [2] [3] [4]

Further Reading: [1] [2] [3] [4]

Celebrating the Forked Spleenwort

What can I say, I am a total sucker for ferns with "untraditional" fronds. Whereas the tropics offer seemingly endless fern varieties, I find that there is something special about temperate ferns that, for lack of a better phrase, break the mold. I was recently introduced to such a fern. Known commonly as the forked spleenwort, Asplenium septentrionale looks more like a clump of grass than it does a fern.

A closer inspection, however, would reveal that it is indeed a Pteridophyte. It grows on rocky outcrops, including stone walls, throughout the northern hemisphere. Here in North America, it is predominantly found in the Rocky Mountains. It is a small fern that often forms dense clusters in cracks and crevices. Its stems are long, narrow, and grass-like, ending in a flattened leaf blade that often forks at the tip. In typical fractal fashion, these leaf blades fork again at the tips, forming minute pinnae.

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The forked spleenwort has gone through considerable taxonomic revisions since it was first described by Linnaeus in 1753. Originally it was named Acrostichum septentrionale, but was then moved into Asplenium a few decades later. Renewed interest in this species during the mid 20th century saw the forked spleenwort moved to the genus Chamaefilix followed by Tarachia, though these did not gain much scientific credence. As such, it has remained an Asplenium ever since.

Its taxonomic story does not end there, however, as genetic tests soon revealed that a much more subtle and nuanced revision was worth considering. It was discovered that the forked spleenwort existed in two genetically distinct types, a diploid (having two sets of chromosomes) and a tetraploid (having four sets of chromosomes). Researchers found that each group had its own distinct distribution with the diploids centered in southwest Asia and the tetraploids being circumboreal.

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It was clear that a subspecies division was worth considering. Further investigations in the early 2000's revealed the presence of sterile triploid individuals that are believed to be hybrids of the two mentioned above. What's more, the forked spleenwort has been found to hybridize with other members of its genus. It is believed that the more isolated populations owe their existence in part to the isolation of their preferred substrate - these ferns do best on acidic substrates where competition is low - and decent longevity. It has been speculated that genetic differences can be maintained when "mutant" individuals become established and persist undisturbed for long periods of time.  

Regardless of its taxonomic status, the forked spleendwort is nonetheless a charismatic little species. A simple image search will reveal just how pleasant this species is in situ. Even better, its beauty and splendor can be shared by botanical enthusiasts throughout the northern hemisphere. There is something to be said about such species.

Photo Credits: [1] [2] [3]

Further Reading: [1]

The Curious Case of the Yellowwood Tree

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The immense beauty and grace of the yellowwood (Cladrastis kentukea) is inversely proportional to its abundance. This unique legume is endemic to the eastern United States and enjoys a strangely patchy distribution. Its ability to perform well when planted far outside of its natural range only deepens the mystery of the yellowwood.

The natural range of the yellowwood leaves a lot of room for speculation. It hits its highest abundances in the Appalachian and Ozark highlands where it tends to grow on shaded slopes in calcareous soils. Scattered populations can be found as far west as Oklahoma and as far north as southern Indiana but nowhere is this tree considered a common component of the flora.

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Though the nature of its oddball distribution pattern is open for plenty of speculation, it is likely that its current status is the result of repeated glaciation events and a dash of stochasticity. The presence of multiple Cladrastis species in China and Japan and only one here in North America is a pattern shared by multiple taxa that once grew throughout each continent. A combination of geography, topography, and repeated glaciation events has since fragmented the ranges of many genera and perhaps Cladrastis is yet another example.

The fact that yellowwood seems to do quite well as a specimen tree well outside of its natural range says to me that this species was probably once far more wide spread in North America than it was today. It may have been pushed south by the ebb and flow of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and, due to the stochastic nuances of seed dispersal, never had a chance to recolonize the ground it had lost. Again, this is all open to speculation as this point.

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Despite being a member of the pea family, yellowwood is not a nitrogen fixer. It does not produce nodules on its roots that house rhizobium. As such, this species may be more restricted by soil type than other legumes. Perhaps its inability to fix nitrogen is part of the reason it tends to favor richer soils. It may also have played a part in its failure to recolonize land scraped clean by the glaciers.

Yellowwood's rarity in nature only makes finding this tree all the more special. It truly is a site to behold. It isn't a large tree by any standards but what it lacks in height it makes up for in looks. Its multi-branched trunk exhibits smooth, gray bark reminiscent of beech trees. Each limb is decked out in large, compound leaves that turn bright yellow in autumn.

When mature, which can take upwards of ten years, yellowwood produces copious amounts of pendulous inflorescences. Each inflorescence sports bright white flowers with a dash of yellow on the petals. It doesn't appear that any formal pollination work has been done on this tree but surely bees and butterflies alike visit the blooms. The name yellowwood comes from the yellow coloration of its heartwood, which has been used to make furniture and gunstocks in the past.

Whether growing in the forest or in your landscape, yellowwood is one of the more stunning trees you will find in eastern North America. Its peculiar natural history only lends to its allure.

Photo Credits: [1] [2] [3] [4]

Further Reading: [1] [2]

The Parrot Pitcher Plant

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Southeastern North America is the true home of the carnivorous plants belonging to the genus Sarracenia. Seven of the approximately eight species in this genus reside in North America's coastal plain forests and nowhere else. These evolutionary marvels are famous the world over for their carnivorous pitfall traps but not all members conform to this style of prey capture. The most aberrant of these carnivores is the so-called parrot pitcher plant (Sarracenia psittacina).

The parrot pitcher plant would be easy to pick out of a lineup, even with an untrained eye. Instead of tall, lanky, upright pitchers, it produces a rosette of smaller, entirely prostrate pitchers. Additionally, the leaf-like hood that covers the pitchers of its relatives appears to have grown into a dome-like structure speckled with translucent patches. Finally, the belly of each pitcher sports a leafy fin called an "ala" that runs the whole length of the tube. Indeed, with the exception of perhaps the purple pitcher plant (S. purpurea), the parrot is truly an oddball.

Its unique appearance is likely an adaptation to seasonal flooding and has changed the way in which this particular species captures prey. The pitchers of the parrot pitcher plant do not function as pitfall traps like those of its relatives. Instead, this species utilizes the "lobster trap" method of prey capture. Lured to its pitchers by their bright colors, insects gradually explore the traps. The fin-like ala directs these unsuspecting victims to the mouth of the pitcher. The translucent patches on the domed hood lure the insect into a false sense of security.

Once inside, the insects become disoriented and cannot easily find the proper escape rout. As they crawl farther into the pitcher, backward pointing hairs ensure that escape is impossible. Death is followed by digestion as the pitcher obtains yet another nutrient-rich meal. However, insects aren't the only game in town for the parrot pitcher plant.

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Because of its prostrate habit, the parrot pitcher plant regularly finds itself underwater whenever its already wet habitat floods. This would be bad news for most other pitchers as their upright position would allow whatever was inside to float out and away. Such is not the case for the parrot pitcher. Underwater, the pitchers become even more like a lobster trap. Everything from aquatic insects to tadpoles and fish can and do fall victim to this plant. As such, not even seasonal flooding can put a damper on this unique pitcher plants meal ticket. It is a wonderful example species adaptation.

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Like all members of the southeastern coastal plain community, the parrot pitcher plant is losing its habitat at an alarming rate. Habitat loss is an ever present threat, both in the form of outright destruction from logging and development as well as from sequestration of fire. Coastal plain communities are fire-adapted ecosystems and without it, the myriad species that call this region home are overgrown and choked out. Research has shown that the parrot pitcher plant, as well as other pitcher plants, greatly benefit from regular fires. Fire clears away competing vegetation and the plants respond with vigor.

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Luckily, parrot pitcher plant numbers are stable at this point in time. Its low growth habit saves it from threats like mowing, which means that it can do well in places like roadside ditches that are less favorable for its taller relatives. I have said it before and I will say it again, if you value species like the parrot pitcher plant, please do everything you can to support land conservation efforts. Please check out what organizations such as The Longleaf Alliance, Partnership For Southern Forestland Conservation, The Nature Conservancy, and The National Wildlife Federation are doing to protect this amazing region. Simply click the name of the organization to find out more.

Photo Credits: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

Further Reading: [1] [2] [3]

 

Trees In Spring

Spring is a wonderful time to observe trees. After a long, dreary winter they burst into action. For many species, spring is the time for reproduction.

Species in this episode:

-Serviceberry (Amelanchier sp.)

-Norway maple (Acer platanoides)

-Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana)

-Sugar maple (Acer saccharum)

-Saucer magnolia (Magnolia x soulangeana)

Producer, Writer, Creator, Host: Matt Candeias (http://www.indefenseofplants.com)

Producer, Editor, Camera: Grant Czadzeck (http://www.grantczadzeck.com)

Pollen Competition

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The animal kingdom is rife with sexual conflict. We are all aware of what is going on when two stag deer lock antlers or when a group of male sage grouse flaunt themselves on leks as females look on. But what about plants? Is there sexual conflict among plant species? Whether pollen ends up on a stigma via wind or animal, is there any way for a plant to "choose" who gets to fertilize the ovule?

It turns out, yes, there is. Sexual competition is part of the pollination process. In fact, some of the most familiar floral morphologies may have evolved as a way of weeding out weak paternal lines. To understand this process better, though, we must first quickly review exactly what goes on during pollination.

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Pollen is a male gamete. Each grain is haploid and contains only a single copy of a plants' chromosomes. When a pollen grain lands on a stigma, the grain germinates like a tiny seed, sending down a root-like growth called a pollen tube. This tube grows down into the ovary until it finds an unfertilized ovule. At this point, sperm travels down the pollen tube where it can unite with the ovule, thus forming a seed.

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Its the formation of this pollen tube that introduces the idea of competition among pollen grains. Again, whether by wind or animal, the pollen arriving to a new plant generally doesn't come from a single individual. Pollen from many potential fathers can arrive all at once. As such, the race to fertilize the ovules can be quite intense, and this is where competition begins.

Remember, pollen only contains a single set of chromosomes from the parent plant, thus all alleles, both functioning and deleterious, are represented. During the growth of the pollen tube, upwards of 60% of the pollen genome is actively transcribed. Any pollen containing lots of deleterious alleles is going to have a much harder time competing with pollen grains that have fewer deleterious alleles. Their tubes have a harder time making it to the ovules in time to fertilize them.

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It is thought that the length of the style (the stem connecting the stigma to the ovaries) may also provide a sort of "proving ground" for pollen too. For instance, picture the flowers of a lily or a mallow. Those long, slender styles may actually be acting like a race track. Only the pollen with the best selection of genetic material will be able to grow their pollen tubes fast enough to reach the ovules, leaving the weaker competition in the dust. In this way, plants may actually be sorting out stronger paternal lines, which makes sense for sessile organisms that can't see.

As with everything in nature, there is far more nuance to this than what I have outlined above. Much work is being done to test some of the earlier assumptions and data surrounding this concept of pollen competition. It certainly happens but the degree to which any given species utilizes such methods is up for debate. Still, it paints a much more interesting picture of mate selection in plants. Static, plants are not!

Photo Credits: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

Further Reading: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]

 

Saving One of North America's Rarest Shrubs

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The chance to save a species from certain extinction cannot be wasted. When the opportunity presents itself, I believe it is our duty to do so. Back in 2010, such an opportunity presented itself to the state of California and what follows is a heroic demonstration of the lengths dedicated individuals will go to protect biodiversity. Thought to be extinct for 60 years, the Franciscan manzanita (Arctostaphylos franciscana) has been given a second chance at life on this planet.

California is known the world over for its staggering biodiversity. Thanks to a multitude of factors that include wide variations in soil and climate types, California boasts an amazing variety of plant life. Some of the most Californian of these plants belong to a group of shrubs and trees collectively referred to as 'manzanitas.' These plants are members of the genus Arctostaphylos, which hails from the family Ericaceae, and sport wonderful red bark, small green leaves, and lovely bell-shaped flowers. Of the approximately 105 species, subspecies, and varieties of manzanita known to science, 95 of them can be found growing in California.

It has been suggested that manzanitas as a whole are a relatively recent taxon, having arisen sometime during the Middle Miocene. This fact complicates their taxonomy a bit because such a rapid radiation has led manzanita authorities to recognize a multitude of subspecies and varieties. In California, there are also many endemic species that owe their existence in part to the state's complicated geologic history. Some of these manzanitas are exceedingly rare, having only been found growing in one or a few locations. Sadly, untold species were probably lost as California was settled and human development cleared the land. 

Such was the case for the Franciscan manzanita. Its discovery dates back to the late 1800's. California botanist and manzanita expert, Alice Eastwood, originally collected this plant on serpentine soils around the San Francisco Bay Area. In the years following, the growing human population began putting lots of pressure on the surrounding landscape.

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Botanists like Eastwood recognized this and went to work doing what they could to save specimens from the onslaught of bulldozers. Luckily, the Franciscan manzanita was one such species. A few individuals were dug up, rooted, and their progeny were distributed to various botanical gardens. By the 1940's, the last known wild population of Franciscan manzanita were torn up and replaced by the unending tide of human expansion into the Bay Area.

It was apparent that the Franciscan manzanita was gone for good. Nothing was left of its original populations outside of botanical gardens. It was officially declared extinct in the wild. Decades went by without much thought for this plant outside of a few botanical circles. All of that changed in 2009.

It was in 2009 when a project began to replace a stretch of roadway called Doyle Drive. It was a massive project and a lot of effort was invested to remove the resident vegetation from the site before work could start in earnest. Native vegetation was salvaged to be used in restoration projects but most of the clearing involved the removal of aggressive roadside trees. A chipper was brought in to turn the trees into wood chips. Thanks to a bit of serendipity, a single area of vegetation bounded on all sides by busy highway was spared from wood chip piles. Apparently the only reason for this was because a patrol car had been parked there during the chipping operation.

Cleared of tall, weedy trees, this small island of vegetation had become visible by road for the first time in decades. That fall, a botanist by the name of Daniel Gluesenkamp was driving by the construction site when he noticed an odd looking shrub growing there. Luckily, he knew enough about manzanitas to know something was different about this shrub. Returning to the site with fellow botanists, Gluesenkamp and others confirmed that this odd shrubby manzanita was in fact the sole surviving wild Franciscan manzanita. Needless to say, this caused a bit of a stir among conservationists.

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The shrub had obviously been growing in that little island of serpentine soils for quite some time. The surrounding vegetation had effectively concealed its presence from the hustle and bustle of commuters that crisscross this section of on and off ramps every day. Oddly enough, this single plant likely owes its entire existence to the disturbance that created the highway in the first place. Manzanitas lay down a persistent seed bank year after year and those seeds can remain dormant until disturbance, usually fire but in this case road construction, awakens them from their slumber. It is likely that road crews had originally disturbed the serpentine soils just enough that this single Franciscan manzanita was able to germinate and survive.

The rediscovery of the last wild Franciscan manzanita was bitter sweet. On the one hand, a species thought extinct for 60 years had been rediscovered. On the other hand, this single individual was extremely stressed by years of noxious car exhaust and now, the sudden influx of sunlight due to the removal of the trees that once sheltered it. What's more, this small island of vegetation was doomed to destruction due to current highway construction. It quickly became apparent that if this plant had any chance of survival, something drastic had to be done.

Many possible rescue scenarios were considered, from cloning the plant to moving bits of it into botanical gardens. In the end, the most heroic option was decided on - this single Franciscan manzanita was going to be relocated to a managed natural area with a similar soil composition and microclimate.

Moving an established shrub is not easy, especially when that particular individual is already stressed to the max. As such, numerous safeguards were enacted to preserve the genetic legacy of this remaining wild individual just in case it did not survive the ordeal. Stem cuttings were taken so that they could be rooted and cloned in a lab. Rooted branches were cut and taken to greenhouses to be grown up to self-sustaining individuals. Numerous seeds were collected from the surprising amount of ripe fruits present on the shrub that year. Finally, soil containing years of this Franciscan manzanita's seedbank as well as the microbial community associated with the roots, were collected and stored to help in future reintroduction efforts.

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Finally, the day came when the plant was to be dug up and moved. Trenches were dug around the root mass and a dozen metal pipes were driven into the soil 2 feet below the plant so that the shrub could safely be separated from the soil in which it had been growing all its life. These pipes were then bolted to I-beams and a crane was used to hoist the manzanita up and out of the precarious spot that nurtured it in secret for all those years.

Upon arriving at its new home, experts left nothing to chance. The shrub was monitored daily for the first ten days of its arrival followed by continued weekly visits after that. As anyone that gardens knows, new plantings must be babied a bit before they become established.  For over a year, this single shrub was sheltered from direct sun, pruned of any dead and sickly branches, and carefully weeded to minimize competition. Amazingly, thanks to the coordinated effort of conservationists, the state of California, and road crews, this single individual lives on in the wild.

Of course, one single individual is not enough to save this species from extinction. At current, cuttings, and seeds provide a great starting place for further reintroduction efforts. Similarly, and most importantly, a bit of foresight on the part of a handful of dedicated botanists nearly a century ago means that the presence of several unique genetic lines of this species living in botanical gardens means that at least some genetic variability can be introduced into the restoration efforts of the Franciscan manzanita.

In an ideal world, conservation would never have to start with a single remaining individual. As we all know, however, this is not an ideal world. Still, this story provides us with inspiration and a sense of hope that if we can work together, amazing things can be done to preserve and restore at least some of what has been lost. The Franciscan manzanita is but one species that desperately needs our help an attention. It is a poignant reminder to never give up and to keep working hard on protecting and restoring biodiversity.

Photo Credits: [1] [2] [3] [4]

Further Reading: [1] [2] [3] [4]

 

The Mystery of the Ghost Plant

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As houseplants enjoy a resurgence in our culture, untold numbers of novice and expert growers alike will have undoubtedly tried their luck at a succulent or two. Succulent, of course, is not a taxonomic division, but rather a way of describing the anatomy of myriad plants adapted to harsh, dry environments around the world. One of the most common succulents in the trade is the ghost plant (Graptopetalum paraguayense).

I would bet that, if you are reading this and you grow houseplants, you have probably grown a ghost plant at one point or another. They are easy to grow and will propagate a whole new plant from only a single leaf. Despite its worldwide popularity, the ghost plant is shrouded in mystery and confusion. To date, we know next to nothing about its ecology. Much of this stems from poor record keeping and the fact that we have no idea exactly where this species originated.

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That's right, we do not know the location of its native habitat. Records indicate that the first plants to find their way into human hands were imported into New York in 1904. Apparently, they were growing as "weeds" at the base of some South American cacti. Plants were lucky enough to wind up in the hands of competent botanists and the species has ended up with the name Graptopetalum paraguayense. The specific epithet "paraguayense" was an indication of much confusion to come as it was thought that the ghost plant originated in Paraguay.

Time has barely improved our knowledge. Considering many of its relatives hail from Mexico, it gradually became more apparent that South America could not claim this species as its own. Luck changed only relatively recently with the discovery of a population of a unique color variant of the ghost plant on a single mountain in northeastern Mexico. A thorough search of the area did not reveal any plants that resemble the plant so many of us know and love. It has been suggested that the original population from which the type species was described is probably growing atop an isolated mountain peak somewhere nearby in the Chihuahuan Desert.

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Despite all of the mystery surrounding this species, we can nonetheless elucidate some aspects about its biology by observing plants in cultivation. It goes without saying that the ghost plant is a species of dry, nutrient-poor habitats. Its succulence and tolerance of a wide array of soil conditions is a testament to its hardy disposition. Also, if plants are grown in full sun, they develop a bluish, waxy coating on their leaves. This is likely a form of sunscreen that the plant produces to protect it from sun scorch. As such, one can assume that its native habitat is quite sunny, though its ability to tolerate shade suggests it likely shares its habitat with shrubby vegetation as well. Given enough time and proper care, ghost plants will produce sprays of erect, 5 pointed flowers. It is not known who might pollinate them in the wild.

It is always interesting to me that a plant can be so well known to growers while at the same time being a complete mystery in every other way. A search of the literature shows that most of the scientific attention given to the ghost plant centers on potentially useful compounds that can be extracted from its tissues. Such is the case for far too many plant species, both known and unknown alike. Perhaps, in the not too distant future, some intrepid botanist will at last scramble up the right mountain and rediscover the original habitat of this wonderful plant. Until then, I hope this small introduction provides you with a new found appreciation for this wonderfully adaptable houseplant.

Photo Credits: [1] [2] [3]

Further Reading: [1] [2] [3]

 

Leafy Cacti?

  Pereskia aculeata

Pereskia aculeata

At first glance, there is little about a Pereskia that would suggest a relation to what we know as cacti. Even a second, third, and forth glance probably wouldn't do much to persuade the casual observer that these plants have a place on cacti family tree. All preconceptions aside, Pereskia are in fact members of the family Cactaceae and quite interesting ones at that.

Most people readily recognize the leafless, spiny green stems of a cactus. Indeed, this would appear to be a unifying character of the family. Pereskia is proof that this is not the case. Though other cacti occasionally produce either tiny, vestigial leaves or stubby succulent leaves, Pereskia really break the mold by producing broad, flattened leaves with only a hint of succulence.

 Pereskia spines are produced from areoles in typical cactus fashion.

Pereskia spines are produced from areoles in typical cactus fashion.

What's more, instead of clusters of Opuntia-like pads or large, columnar trunks, Pereskia are mainly shrubby plants with a handful of scrambling climbers mixed in. Similar to their more succulent cousins, the trunks of Pereskia are usually adorned with clusters of long spines for protection. Additionally, each species produces the large, showy, cup-like blooms we have come to expect from cacti.

They are certainly as odd as they are beautiful. As it stands right now, taxonomists recognize two clades of Pereskia - Clade A, which are native to a region comprising the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea (this group is currently listed under the name Leuenbergeria) and Clade B, which are native to regions just south of the Amazon Basin. This may seem superficial to most of us but the distinction between these groups has a lot to teach us about the evolution of what we know of as cacti. 

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Pereskia grandifolia

Genetically speaking, the genus Pereskia sorts out at the base of the cactus family tree. Pereskia are in fact sister to all other cacti. This is where the distinction between the two Pereskia clades gets interesting. Clade A appears to be the older of the two and all members of this group form bark early on in their development and their stems lack a feature present in all other cacti - stomata. Stomata are microscopic pours that allow the exchange of gases like CO2 and oxygen. Clabe B, on the other hand, delay bark formation until later in life and all of them produce stomata on their stems.

The reason this distinction is important is because all other cacti produce stomata on their stems as well. As such, their base at the bottom of the cactus tree not only shows us what the ancestral from of cactus must have looked like, it also paints a relatively detailed picture of the evolutionary trajectory of subsequent cacti lineages. It would appear that the ancestor of all cacti started out as leafy shrubs that lacked the ability to perform stem photosynthesis. Subsequent evolution saw a delay in bark formation, the presence of stomata on the stem, and the start of stem photosynthesis, which is a defining feature of all other cacti.

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Pereskia aculeata

If you are as excited about Pereskia as I am, then you , my friend, are in luck. A handful of Pereskia species have found their way into the horticulture trade. With a little luck attention to detail, you too can share you home with one of these wonderful plants. Just be warned, they get tall and their spines, which are often hidden by the leaves, are a force to be reckoned with. Tread lightly with these wonderfully odd cacti. Celebrate their as the evolutionary wonders that they are!

Photo Credits: [1] [2] [3] [4]

Further Reading: [1] [2]

 

 

Of Bluebells and Fungi

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Whether in your garden or in the woods, common bluebells (Hyacinthoides non-scripta) are a delightful respite from the dreary months of winter. It should come as no surprise that these spring geophytes are a staple in temperate gardens the world over. And, as amazing as they are in the garden, bluebells are downright fascinating in the wild.

Bluebells can be found growing naturally from the northwestern corner of Spain north into the British Isles. They are largely a woodland species, though finding them in meadows isn't uncommon. They are especially common in sites that have not experienced much soil disturbance. In fact, large bluebell populations are used as indicators of ancient wood lots.

Being geophytes, bluebells cram growth and reproduction into a few short weeks in spring. We tend to think of plants like this as denizens of shade, however, most geophytes get going long before the canopy trees have leafed out. As such, these plants are more accurately sun bathers. On warm days, various bees can be seen visiting the pendulous flowers, with the champion pollinator being the humble bumble bees.

The above ground beauty of bluebells tends to distract us from learning much about their ecology. That hasn't stopped determined scientists though. Plenty of work has been done looking at how bluebells make their living and get on with their botanical neighbors. In fact, research is turning up some incredible data regarding bluebells and mycorrhizal fungi.

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Bluebell seeds tend not to travel very far, most often germinating near the base of the parent. Germination occurs in the fall when temperatures begin to drop and the rains pick up. Interestingly, bluebell seeds actually germinate within the leaf litter and begin putting down their initial root before the first frosts. Often this root is contractile, pulling the tiny seedling down into the soil where it is less likely to freeze. During their first year, phosphorus levels are high. Not only does the nutrient-rich endosperm supply the seedling with much of its initial needs, abundant phosphorus near the soil surface supplies more than enough for young plants. This changes as the plants age and change their position within the soil.

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Over the next 4 to 5 years, the bluebell's contractile roots pull it deeper down into the soil, taking it out of the reach of predators and frost. This also takes them farther away from the nutrient-rich surface layers. What's more, the roots of older bluebells are rather simple structures. They do not branch much, if at all, and they certainly do not have enough surface area for proper nutrient uptake. This is where mycorrhizae come in.

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Bluebells partner with a group of fungi called arbuscular mycorrhiza, which penetrate the root cells, thus greatly expanding the effective rooting zone of the plant. Plants pay these fungi in carbohydrates produced during photosynthesis and in return, the fungi provide the plants with access to far more nutrients than they would be able to get without them. One of the main nutrients plants gain from these symbiotic fungi is phosphorus.

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For bluebells, with age comes new habitat, and with new habitat comes an increased need for nutrients. This is why bluebells become more dependent on arbuscular mycorrhiza as they age. In fact, plants grown without these fungi do not come close to breaking even on the nutrients needed for growth and maintenance and thus live a shortened life of diminishing returns. This is an opposite pattern from what we tend to expect out of mycorrhizal-dependent plants. Normally its the seedlings that cannot live without mycorrhizal symbionts. It just goes to show you that even familiar species like the bluebell can offer us novel insights into the myriad ways in which plants eke out a living.

Photo Credits: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

Further Reading: [1] [2]

 

One Mustard, Many Flavors

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What do kale, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussel sprouts, and cabbage have in common? They are all different cultivars of the same species!

Wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea) is native to coastal parts of southern and western Europe. In its native habitat, wild cabbage is very tolerant of salty, limey soils but not so tolerant of competition. Because of this, it tends to grow mainly on limestone sea cliffs where few other plants can dig their roots in.

Despite their popularity as delicious, healthy vegetables, as well as their long history of cultivation, there is scant record of this plant before Greek and Roman times. Some feel that this is one of the oldest plants in cultivation. Along with the countless number of edible cultivars, the wild form of Brassica oleracea can be found growing throughout the world, no doubt thanks to its popularity among humans.

I am always amazed by how little we know about crop wild relatives. Despite the popularity of its many agricultural cultivars, relatively little attention has been paid to B. oleracea in the wild. What we do know is that at least two subspecies have been identified - B. oleracea ssp. bourgeaui and B. oleracea L. ssp. oleracea. As far as anyone can tell, subspecies 'oleracea' is the most wide spread in its distribution whereas subspecies 'bourgeaui'  is only known from the Canary Islands. 

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B. oleracea's long history with humans confuses matters quite a bit. Because it has been cultivated for thousands of years, identifying which populations represent wild individuals and which represent ancient introductions is exceedingly difficult. Such investigations are made all the more difficult by a lack of funding for the kind of research that would be needed to elucidate some of these mysteries. We know so little about wild B. oleracea that the IUCN considers is a species to be "data deficient."

It seems to appreciate cool, moist areas and will sometimes escape from cultivation if conditions are right, thus leading to the confusion mentioned above. It is amazing to look at this plant and ponder all the ways in which humans have selectively bred it into the myriad shapes, sizes, and flavors we know and love (or hate) today! However, we must pay more attention to the wild progenitors of our favorite crops. They harbor much needed genetic diversity as well as clues to how these plants are going to fare as our climates continue to change.

Photo Credit: [1] [2]

Further Reading: [1] [2] [3]

Trout Lily Appreciation

This video is a celebration of the white trout lily (Erythronium albidum) and its various spring ephemeral neighbors. We even talk about the threat that invasive species like garlic mustard (Alliara petiolata).

Producer, Editor, Camera: Grant Czadzeck (http://www.grantczadzeck.com)

Music by
Artist: Botanist
Track:
https://verdant-realm-botanist.bandcamp.com/

Prescribed Fire On An Illinois Prairie

Prairies are fire adapted ecosystems. For far too long, fires were sequestered. Today, more and more communities are coming around to the fact that fire can be used as a tool to bring life back to these endangered ecosystems. In this video, we get hands on experience with fire as a prairie restoration tool.

Producer, Editor, Camera: Grant Czadzeck (http://www.grantczadzeck.com)

Music by
Artist: Stranger In My Town
Track: Terra
https://strangerinmytown.bandcamp.com/

 

Early Spring Ephemerals

Join us as we go in search of some of the earliest spring ephemerals. In this episode we come face to face with the aptly named harbinger of spring (Erigenia bulbosa) and the lovely Hepatica nobilis.

Producer, Editor, Camera: Grant Czadzeck (http://www.grantczadzeck.com)

Music by
Artist: Stranger In My Town
Track: Air
https://strangerinmytown.bandcamp.com/