What Are Plants Made Of?

Have you ever thought about what plants are made of? I mean, really thought about it. Strip away all the splendor and glory of all the different plant species on this planet and really take a close look at how plants grow and make more plants. It is a fascinating realm and it all has to do with photosynthesis. To go from photons given off by our nearest star to a full grown plant is quite the journey and, at the end of that journey, you may be surprised to learn what plants are all about.

It starts with photons. Leaving the sun they travel out into the universe. Some eventually collide with Earth and make their way to the surface. Plants position their leaves to absorb these photons. Energy from the photons is used to split water molecules inside the chloroplasts. In the process of splitting water, oxygen is released as a byproduct (thanks plants!). Splitting water also releases electrons and hydrogen ions.

These electrons and hydrogen ions are used to make energy in the form of ATP. Along with some electrons, ATP is then used in another cycle known as the Calvin cycle. The point of the Calvin cycle is to take in CO2 and use the energy created prior to reduce carbon molecules into chains of organic molecules. Most of the carbon in a plant comes from the intake of CO2. Through a series of steps (I will spare you the details) plants piece together carbon atoms into long chains. Some of these chains form glucose and some of that glucose gets linked together into cellulose.

Cellulose is the main structural component of plant cells. From the smallest plants in the world (genus Wolffia) all the way up to the largest and tallest redwoods and sequoias (incidentally some of the largest organisms to have ever existed on this planet) , all of them are built out of cellulose. So, in essence, all the plant life you see out there is literally built from the ground up by carbon originating from CO2 gas. Pretty incredible stuff, wouldn't you agree?