When I think back on it, one of the first plants I ever actively tried growing was waterweed (Elodea canadensis). My 4th grade teacher had invested in a unit on the ecosystem concept. We all brought in 2 liter soda bottles that we craftily turned into mini terrariums. The top half of the terrarium was filled with soil and planted with some grass seed. The bottom half was filled with water and some gravel. In that portion we placed a single guppy and a few sprigs of Elodea.
The idea was to teach us about water and nutrient cycles. It didn't work out too well as most of my classmates abandoned theirs not long after the unit was over. Being the avid little nerd that I was, I fell deeply in love with my new miniature ecosystem. The grass didn't last long but the guppy and the Elodea did. Since then, I have kept Elodea in various aquariums throughout the years but never gave it much thought. It is easy enough to grow but it never did much. Today I would like to make up for my lack of concern for this plant by taking a closer look at Elodea.
The genus Elodea is one of 16 genera that make up the family Hydrocharitaceae and is comprised of 6 species. All 6 of these plants are native to either North or South America, with Elodea canadensis preferring the cooler regions of northern North America. They are adaptable plants and can grow both rooted or floating in a variety of aquatic conditions. It is this adaptability that has made them so popular in the aquarium trade. It is also the reason why the genus is considered a nasty aquatic invasive throughout the globe. For this reason, I do not recommend growing this plant outdoors in any way, shape, or form unless that species is native to your region.
Believe it or not, Elodea are indeed flowering plants. Small white to pink flowers are borne on delicate stalks at the water's surface. They are attractive structures that aren't frequently observed. In fact, it is such a rare occurrence that trying to figure out what exactly pollinates them proved to be quite difficult. What we do know is that sexual reproduction and seed set is not the main way in which these plants reproduce.
Anyone who has grown them in an aquarium knows that it doesn't take much to propagate an Elodea plant. They have a remarkable ability for cloning themselves from mere fragments of the stem. This is yet another reason why they can become so invasive. Plants growing in temperate waterways produce a thick bud at the tips of their stems come fall. This is how they overwinter. Once favorable temperatures return, this bud "germinates" and grows into a new plant. In more mild climates, these plants are evergreen.
One of the most interesting aspects of Elodea ecology is that at least two species, E canadensis and E. nuttallii, are considered allelopathic. In other words, these plants produce secondary chemicals in their tissues that inhibit the growth of other photosynthetic organisms. In this case, their allelopathic nature is believed to be a response to epiphytic algae and cyanobacteria.
Slow growing aquatic plants must contend with films of algae and cyanobacteria building up on their leaves. Under certain conditions, this buildup can outpace the plants' ability to deal with it and ends up completely blocking all sunlight reaching the leaves. Researchers found that chemicals produced by these two species of Elodea actually inhibited the growth of algae and cyanobacteria on their leaves, thus reducing the competition for light in their aquatic environments.
Elodea make for a wonderful introduction to the world of aquatic plants. They are easy to grow and, if cared for properly, look really cool. Just remember that their hardy nature also makes them an aggressive invader where they are not native. Never ever dump the contents of an aquarium into local water ways. Provided you keep that in mind, Elodea can be a wonderful introduction to the home aquarium. If you are lucky enough to see them in flower in the wild, take the time to enjoy it. Who knows when you will see it again.