Germinating a Seed After 32,000 Years

What you are looking at are plants that were grown from seeds buried in permafrost for nearly 32,000 years. The seeds were discovered on the banks of the Kolyma River in Siberia. The river is eroding into the permafrost and uncovering frozen Pleistocene relics. Researchers took the seeds and did the unthinkable - they grew them into adult plants. To date, this is the oldest resurrected plant material. 

The key to their extreme longevity lies in the permafrost. They were found inside the frozen burrow of an Arctic ground squirrel. The state of the burrow suggests that everything froze quite rapidly. As such, the seeds remained in a state of suspended animation for 32,000 years. This is not the first time viable plant materials have been recovered from Pleistocene permafrost. Spores, mosses, as well as seeds of other flowering plants have been somewhat rejuvenated in the past but none of these were grown to maturity. 

Using micropropagation techniques coupled with tissue cultures, researchers were able to grow and flower the 32,000 year old seeds. What they discovered was that these seeds belonged to a plant that can still be found in the Arctic today. It is a small species in the family Caryophyllaceae called Silene stenophylla. However, there were some differences. 

As it turns out, the seeds taken from the burrow proved to be a distinct phenotype from extant S. stenophylla populations. Though there are many possible reasons for this, it certainly hints at the different environmental parameters faced by this species through time. What's more, such findings allow us a unique window into the world of seed dormancy. Researchers are now looking at such cases to better inform how we can preserve seeds for longer periods of time. 

Photo Credit: Svetlana Yashinaa, Stanislav Gubin, Stanislav Maksimovich, Alexandra Yashina, Edith Gakhova, and David Gilichinsky

Further Reading:
http://www.pnas.org/content/109/10/4008.full