Fern Ant Farm

An epiphytic lifestyle is no walk in the park. Baking sun, drying winds, and a lack of soil are the norm. As a result epiphytic plants exhibit numerous adaptations for retaining water and obtaining nutrients. One of the most interesting adaptations to this lifestyle can be seen in plants that have struct up a relationship with ants.

An amazing example of one such relationship can be seen in a genus of epiphytic ferns called Lecanopteris. Native to Southeast Asia and New Guinea, their unique look is equally matched by their unique ecology. Using a highly modified rhizome, they are able to latch on to the branch of a tree. In species such as Lecanopteris mirabilis (pictured here), it's as if the fronds are emerging from a strange green amoeba.

It's whats going on underneath their strange rhizomes that makes this group so fascinating. These ferns literally grow ant farms. Chambers and middens within the amorphous rhizome entice colonies of ants to set up shop. In return for lodging, the ants provide protection. Anything looking to take a bite out of a frond must contend with an army of angry ants. Moreover, the ants provide valuable nutrients in the form of waste and other detritus.

These are by no means the only plants to have evolved a relationship of this sort. Myriad plant species utilize ants for protection, nutrient acquisition, and seed dispersal. It has even been suggested that the unique morphology of Lecanopteris spores is an adaptation for ant dispersal. Certainly one can imagine how that would come into play. Interestingly enough, this group of ferns has attracted the attention of plant enthusiasts looking for a unique plant to grow in their home. As such, you can now find many different species of Lecanopteris being cultivated for the horticultural trade.

Photo Credit: Ch'ien C. Lee (www.wildborneo.com.my/photo.php?f=cld1505721.jpg)

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The Evolution of Bulbs

Spring time is bulb time. As the winter gives way to warmer, longer days, some of our most beloved botanical neighbors begin their race for the sun. Functionally speaking, bulbs are storage organs. They are made up of a short stem surrounded by layers of fleshy leaves, which contain plenty of energy to fuel rapid growth. Their ability to maintain dormancy is something most of us will be familiar with.

They are incredibly hardy at this stage. As you might expect, bulbs are an adaptation for short growing seasons. Their ability to rapidly grow shoots gives them an advantage during short periods of time when conditions improve. Despite the energetic costs associated with supplying and maintaining such a relatively large storage organ, the ability to rapidly deploy leaves when conditions become favorable is nonetheless quite advantageous.

Contrast this with rhizomatous species, which are often associated with a life in the understory. Their ambling subterranean habit allows them to vegetatively "explore" for light and nutrients. What's more, the connected rhizomes allow the parent plant to provide nutrients to the developing clones until they grow large enough to support themselves. Under such conditions, bulbs would be at a disadvantage.

Bulbs have evolved independently throughout the angiosperm tree. Many instances of a switch from rhizomatous to bulbous growth habit occurred during the Miocene (23.03 to 5.332 million years ago) and has been associated with a global decrease in temperature and an increase in seasonality at higher latitudes. The decrease in growing season may have favored the evolution of bulbous plants such as those in the lily family. Today, we take advantage of this hardy habit, making bulbous species some of the most common plants used in gardens.

Photo Credit: Pixel Addict (Wikimedia Commons)

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