The Largest Single Flower in the World

To find some of the largest flowers in the world, one must find themselves hiking through the the humid jungles of southeast Asia. From there you must be lucky enough to stumble across the flowers of a genus known scientifically as Rafflesia. It contains roughly 28 species spattered about various tropical islands. If you are very lucky, you might even find Rafflesia arnoldii. Producing flowers that are over 3 feet (1 m) in diameter and weighing as much as 24 pounds (11 kg), it produces the largest individual flower on the planet. 

Even more bizarre, these plants are entirely parasitic. They belong to a specialized group called holoparasites. These plants produce no stems, no leaves, nor any true roots. Their entire existence depends on a group of vines related to North America's grapes. Except for flowering, individual Rafflesia exist entirely as a network of mycelium-like cells inside the tissues of their vine hosts.


For a long time, the taxonomic status of this plant was highly debated but recent DNA evidence puts it in the order Malpighiales. From there, things get a little funny. One recent analysis suggested that Rafflesia belonged in the family Euphorbiaceae, however, it most likely warrants its own family - Rafflesiaceae.

So, why produce such large flowers? Well, existing solely within a vine makes it hard to establish a large population in any given area. This makes for a difficult situation in the pollinator department. Somehow plants must increase the odds that any given pollinator will visit multiple unrelated individuals of that particular species. By growing very large and and producing a lot of "stink" (this plant is also referred to as the corpse plant), Rafflesia make sure that pollinators will come from far and wide to investigate, thus increasing their chances of cross pollinating. How this plant goes about seed dispersal, however, remains a mystery.

Most interesting of all, it has been discovered that there is some amount of horizontal gene transfer going on between Rafflesia and its host. Basically, Rafflesia obtains strands of DNA from the vine and uses them in its own genetic code. It is believed this incurs some fitness benefit to Rafflesia but more research is needed to figure out why this may be happening. 

Sadly, many species within this family may be lost before we ever get a chance to get to know them. Forests throughout this region are disappearing rapidly to make room for expanding populations and agriculture. What makes matters worse for Rafflesia is that their lifestyle makes them very hard to study. It is especially difficult to obtain accurate population estimates. As more and more forests are cleared, we could be losing countless populations of these wonderful and intriguing plants. As with large mammals, it would seem that the world's largest flower is falling victim to the unending tide of human development. 

Photo Credit: Tamara van Molken


Further Reading:

http://bit.ly/2c2ALHl

http://bit.ly/2cPMP51

http://bit.ly/2cwP7ny

The World's Largest Flower

Have you ever wondered which plants produce the largest single flower in the world?

Meet Rafflesia. Well, I should say Rafflesia arnoldii, which produces flowers that are over 3 feet (1 meter) in diameter and can weigh as much as 24 lbs. (11 kg)! Rafflesia is a genus that contains roughly 28 species that hail from the jungles of southeastern Asia. What is crazy about this genus is not just the fact that it produces the largest flower in the world, but also that they are all holoparasites. They do not produce stems, leaves, or true roots. They live out their entire lives inside of a group of vines related to North America's grapes. Except for flowering, Rafflesia exists entirely as a network of mycelium-like cells inside their vine hosts.

For a long time, the taxonomic status of this plant was highly debated but recent DNA evidence puts it in the order Malpighiales. From there, things get a little funny. One recent analysis suggested that Rafflesia belonged in the family Euphorbiaceae, however, it most likely warrants its own family - Rafflesiaceae.

A view from the inside of another species of Rafflesia - Rafflesia tuan-mudae. The strangely spiked "disk" in the center is the column, which houses the reproductive organs.  Photo by Ch'ien C. Lee

A view from the inside of another species of Rafflesia - Rafflesia tuan-mudae. The strangely spiked "disk" in the center is the column, which houses the reproductive organs.

Photo by Ch'ien C. Lee

So, why produce such large flowers? Well, existing solely within a vine makes it hard to establish a large population in any given area, a difficult situation for any plants that rely on pollinators for reproduction. By growing very large and thus being able to produce a lot of "stink" (this plant is also referred to as the corpse plant), Rafflesia make sure that pollinators will come from far and wide to investigate, thus increasing their chances of cross pollinating. How this plant goes about spreading its seeds is still a mystery.

Most interesting of all, it has been discovered that there is some amount of horizontal gene transfer going on between Rafflesia and its host. Basically, Rafflesia obtains strands of DNA from the vine it lives in and uses them in its own genetic code. It is believed this incurs some fitness benefit to Rafflesia but it is yet not fully understood.

Sadly, many species within this family may be lost before we ever get a chance to get to know them better. Forests in this region are disappearing rapidly to make room for expanding populations and agriculture. What makes matters worse for the genus is that their lifestyle makes them very hard to study. It is especially difficult to obtain accurate population estimates. As more and more forest is cleared, we could be losing countless populations of these wonderful and intriguing plants. As with large mammals, it would seem that the world's largest flower is falling victim to the unending tide of human development.

Photo Credit: Tamara van Molken

and

Ch'ien C. Lee www.wildborneo.com.my/photo.phpf=cld05120647.jpg

Further Reading:

http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pgen.1003265

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982208013432

http://legacy.earlham.edu/~givenbe/Rafflesia/rafflesia/biodiv2.htm