Botanical Buoys

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American featherfoil (Hottonia inflata) is a fascinating aquatic plant. It can be found in wetlands ranging from the coastal plains of Texas all the way up into Maine. Though widespread, American featherfoil is by no means common. Today I would like to introduce you to this gorgeous member of the primrose family (Primulaceae).

American featherfoil may look like a floating plant but it is not. It roots itself firmly into the soil and spends much of its early days as a vegetative stem covered in wonderful feathery leaves. It may be hard to find during this period as no part of it sticks above the water. To find it, one must look in shallow waters of ponds, ditches, and swamps that have not experienced too much disturbance. More on this in a bit.

American featherfoil lives life in the fast lane. It is what we call a winter annual. Seeds germinate in the fall and by late October, juveniles can be seen sporting a few leaves. There it will remains throughout the winter months until early spring when warming waters signal the growth phase. Such growth is rapid. So rapid, in fact, that by mid to late April, plants are beginning to flower. To successfully reproduce, however, American featherfoil must get its flowers above water.

The need to flower out of water is exactly why this plant looks like it is free floating. The flower stalks certainly do float and they do so via specialized stems, hence the specific epithet “inflata.” Each plant grows a series of large, spongy flowering stalks that are filled with air. This helps buoy the stems up above the water line. It does not float about very much as its stem and roots still anchor it firmly into place. Each inflorescence consists of a series of whorled umbels that vary in color from white to yellow, and even violet. Following pollination, seeds are released into the water where they settle into the mud and await the coming fall.

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As I mentioned above, American featherfoil appreciates wetland habitats that haven’t experienced too much disturbance. Thanks to our wanton disregard for wetlands over the last century or so, American featherfoil (along with countless other species) has seen a decline in numbers. One of the biggest hits to this species came from the trapping of beavers. It turns out, beaver ponds offer some of the most ideal conditions for American featherfoil growth. Beaver ponds are relatively shallow and the water level does not change drastically from month to month.

Historically unsustainable levels of beaver trapping coupled with dam destruction, wetland draining, and agricultural runoff has removed so much suitable habitat and with it American featherfoil as well as numerous wetland constituents. Without habitat, species cannot persist. Because of this, American featherfoil has been placed on state threatened and endangered lists throughout the entirety of its range. With the return of the beaver to much of its former range, there is hope that at least some of the habitat will again be ready for American featherfoil. Still, our relationship with wetlands remains tenuous at best and until we do more to protect and restore such important ecosystems, species like American featherfoil will continue to suffer. This is why you must support wetland protection and restoration in your region!

Photo Credits: [1] [2] [3]

Further Reading: [1] [2]