Meet Snorkelwort

If vernal pools are considered ephemeral then granite pools are downright fleeting. Any organism that specializes in such a habitat must be ready to deal with extremes. That is what makes a little plant known scientifically as Gratiola amphiantha so darn cool. It's what also makes it so darn threatened. 

This tiny member of the Plantaginaceae family is native to the Piedmont province of southeastern North America. It lives out its entire life in shallow pools that form in weathered granitic outcrops. One must really think about the specificity of this sort of habitat to truly appreciate what this little aquatic herb is up against. Pools must be deep enough to hold water just long enough but not too deep to allow normal plant succession. They must have just enough soil to allow these plants to take root but the soil must be thin enough to prevent other vegetation from taking over. They must also be low in nutrients to limit the growth of algae that would otherwise cloud the water. Needless to say, this makes suitable habitat for snorkelwort hard to come by. 

When such conditions are met, however, snorkelwort can be quite prolific. Seeds of this species germinate in late fall and early winter when only a thing veneer of water covers the equally thin soils. Individual plants form a small rosette that sits in wait until rains fill the tiny pools. Once submerged, the rosettes send up thin stem-like structures called scapes. These scapes terminate in two tiny bracts that float at the waters surface. Between the two bracts emerges tiny, white, five petaled flowers. Submerged flowers are also produced but these are cleistogamous flowers that never open and only self-pollinate. This ensures that at least some seeds are produced every growing season. 

When you consider all aspects of its ecology, it is no wonder that snorkelwort is teetering on the edge of extinction. The granitic pools in which it lives are very sensitive to change. It doesn't take much to make them totally unsuitable places to live. Protecting them alone is hard enough. Mining, pollution, littering, and even casual hikers can wipe out entire populations in an instant. Even populations living within the boarders of protected parks have been extirpated by hiking and littering. When you live on the edge, it doesn't take much to fall off. In total, only about 31 populations scattered through Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina are all that remains of this overlooked little plant. 

The upside to all of this is that numerous stake holders, both public and private, are invested in the ongoing success of this species. Private land owners whose land supports snorkelwort populations are cooperating with botanists to ensure that this species continues to find what it needs to survive. Luckily a sizable chunk of the remaining populations are large enough to support ample genetic diversity and, at this point in time, don't seem to be at any risk of destruction. For a little plant like snorkelwort, a little attention can go a long way. If you know a spot where this interesting little plant grows, tread lightly and appreciate it from a safe distance. 

Photo Credits: [1] [2] [3]

Further Reading: [1] [2] [3]

 

Brother of Hibiscus

Islands are known for their interesting flora and fauna. Until humans came on the scene, colonization events by different species on different islands were probably rare events, with long stretches of time in between. Because of this, islands are interesting experiments in evolution, often having endemic species found nowhere else in the world. Hawai'i was once home to many different kinds of endemic species. One such group are the Hibiscadelphus.

As you may have gathered by the name, Hibiscadelphus is a relative of hibiscus. The Latin name means "brother of Hibiscus." Unlike the widely splayed flowers of their relatives, Hibiscadelphus flowers never fully open. Instead, they form a tubular structure with a curved lower lip. The genus consists of 7 species. Four of these have gone completely extinct, two are only maintained in cultivation, and the remainder is barely holding on. There have been attempts to reestablish some species into other portions of their range but due to hybridization, these attempts were ceased. In my opinion this is a shame. In this case, a hybrid is better than losing both parental species and it would still be uniquely Hawaiian.

Why are Hibiscadelphus so rare? Well, humans have a sad history when it comes to colonizing islands. They bring with them a multitude of invasive species at a rate in which the local flora and fauna cannot adapt. They change the land through cultivation and development as well as by subduing natural fire regimes. Also, they wipe out keystone species, which causes a ripple effect throughout the environment. Hibiscadelphus have faced all of these threats and more. Pigs and rats eat their seeds, their habitats have been turned over for the ever-increasing human population, fires have been stopped, and some of their pollinators, the endemic honeycreepers, have also been driven to extinction thanks to avian pox and malaria. Sadly, this is a story that repeats itself time and time again all over the world. For now, the future of Hibiscadelphus is rather bleak.

Photo Credit: David Eickhoff

Further Reading:

http://bit.ly/2ao84X1

http://bit.ly/2aEfpkn

The Endangered Running Buffalo Clover

 

Endangered species come in all different shapes and sizes. Though the average person on the street can readily cite charismatic animals species such as the giant panda or the white rhino, few folks ever realize that many of the world's plants are at risk of extinction. In fact, the latest reports show that one in five plant species are in danger of disappearing forever. They aren't all charismatic species like orchids either, some of the most endangered plants are often the most ignored. They simply don't find their way into conversations about conservation. 

One prime example of such an imperiled plant is the running buffalo clover (Trifolium stoloniferum). This lovely little clover once ranged from Arkansas, through Illinois and Indiana, all the way to Ohio and West Virginia. It was a species of open disturbed areas in prairies and forests. It enjoyed rich soils and probably followed in the wake of the large herds of bison and regular fires that once shaped the countryside. Another interesting aspect of this clover's ecology is that it apparently does not fix nitrogen. It lacks the rhizobial associates that make legumes famous. 

The loss of the bison from most of its range coupled with rampant habitat destruction spelled disaster for the running buffalo clover. It was thought to be extinct for nearly a century until 1983 when a single population was discovered in West Virginia. Since then scattered populations have been found, however, these are few and far between. As such, it is now considered a federally endangered species. 

The continued survival of the running buffalo clover is completely tied to proper land management. Without a natural disturbance regime, this lovely little plant is quickly overtaken by more aggressive vegetation. Gone are the days of the roaming buffalo and natural fire regimes. 

Luckily this species was able to garnish enough attention to earn it some protection. However, for far too many plant species this is simply not the case. Until we change the kinds of conversations we are having about plants and habitat in general, we stand to lose more plant species than I care to imagine. This in turn will have rippling effects through the entire ecosystem. So, today I want you to think about the running buffalo clover as a stark reminder of just how important conservation can be. 

Photo Credit: Andrew Lane Gibson (http://bit.ly/25Sb6f1)

Further Reading:
http://1.usa.gov/1sB7oo9

Enigmatic Neviusia

Neviusia. The first time I heard it mentioned I was certain the conversation had switched from reality to the world of Harry Potter. I was wrong. The name belongs to a genus of plants that are totally real. What's more, the natural history of this small group is absolutely fascinating.

The genus Neviusia is comprised of two extant species. N. alabamensis is endemic to a small region of the southeastern United States around northwest Georgia and the Ozark Mountains. Its cousin, N. cliftonii, was discovered in 1992 and is endemic to a small area around "Lake" Shasta in California. Fewer than 20 populations have been found and of them, six were flooded to create "Lake" Shasta. It would seem very strange that both species in this genus are not only endemic to extremely localized regions but also completely disjunct from one another. This is only the beginning.

Whereas fruits have been described for N. cliftonii, none have been reported in N. alabamensis. Ever. Thanks to genetic analysis, populations of both plants are thought to be entirely clonal. High rates of pollen sterility are to blame. Why this is the case is hard to say. It is thought that the genus Neviusia is a relict of the early Cenozoic. Fossil evidence from British Columbia suggest that this genus was once more diverse and more wide spread, having gradually declined to its current limited distribution. The Pleistocene was likely the last straw for these plants, being corralled into small refugia of suitable habitat by the glaciers. Lack of seed production (perhaps due to genetic drift) meant that these two species were to never recolonize their former range. At least not without help...

Since their discovery, these two species have garnered some attention. Like Franklinia, Neviusia have become a sort of horticultural curiosity and have since been out-planted in a variety of locations. My first and only encounter with Neviusia occurred in a conservation garden. Despite their popularity among researchers and gardeners alike, it is unlikely that Neviusia will ever reclaim even a fraction of their former glory. Instead, they remain as endemic reminders of a bygone era. Despite their limited range I think it is important to remember just how long they have survived in North America. After millions of years of survival and persistence, their biggest threat is now us.

Photo Credit: Philip Bouchard (http://bit.ly/1WpElzX)

Further Reading:
http://bit.ly/1NqFdlq

http://bit.ly/1ZFEa1G

http://bit.ly/1UT2WfF

http://bit.ly/24OshNM

http://bit.ly/1TFblOd

http://bit.ly/1rWecMq

The Smallest and Rarest Water Lily

Nymphaea thermarum is both the smallest and the rarest water lily in the world. It is so rare that it no longer exists in the wild. Back in 1987 it was discovered growing in the mud of a hot spring located in Rwanda, Africa. The botanist who discovered it, Eberhard Fischer, realized that it was quite rare and collected a few specimens to bring back to Germany. Indeed it has never been found growing anywhere else. This was a wise decision on his part because after decades of habitat degradation, the hot spring was destroyed by locals in order to divert water for laundry. 

For years, the original specimens were not doing so hot in captivity. It was looking like this species was going to be lost forever. That was until a handful of seedlings ended up in the hands of plant germination specialist Carlos Magdalena of the Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew. Carlos saw a challenge in this species and realized that his efforts could possibly be the last chance this species had at survival. 

Carlos tried many avenues of approach to growing this species and none seemed to be working. He messed with water chemistry, nutrients, and water depth, all the while the plants seemed to languish, never reaching maturity. In a final attempt to make things work, Carlos returned to the original literature. Here he found something interesting. Apparently, N. thermarum was not growing in water at all. Instead, it seemed to only grow in the wet mud surrounding the hot spring. 

This was the key that unlocked the door to propagating this species. Instead of growing this water lily submerged like every other water lily species, Carlos decided to grow the plants as they once grew in the wild, in mud. This was it! Carlos successfully grew 8 new plants to maturity. This may seem like a small amount but for the last remaining members of a species, every little bit counts. Recently in 2009, the first of Carlos's plants flowered. This marked a milestone for this species. While it has been wiped out in the wild, this species can still persist in cultivation until experts can decide on what the best course of action is for its future. 

Further Reading:
http://www.kew.org/science-conservation/plants-fungi/nymphaea-thermarum

The Plight of the Venus Fly Trap

The fact that endangered plants do not receive the same protection as animals speaks volumes towards our perception of their importance. If one were to gun down an endangered bird, regardless of where it happened, they would likely face jail time. This is a good thing. However, regardless of how endangered a plant may be, as long as it is on private property and written consent is given by the land owner, one can harvest to their hearts content. It could be the last population in existence. The point of the matter is, endangered plants only receive protection on federal lands. Even then, enforcement is difficult at best. 

Plant poaching is serious business. The victims are usually pretty species like orchids or valuable species like American ginseng. The rarer something is, the higher the price. Someone will always be willing to pay top dollar to add something rare to their collection. This story is repeated time and time again throughout the world but one particularly interesting example centers on a plant that most people are familiar with and have probably attempted to grow at one point in their lives - the Venus fly trap (Dionaea muscipula).

It may be counter intuitive to believe that a plant so often sold in grocery stores could be in trouble but the Venus flytrap truly is. In the wild, Venus fly traps are what we call endemics. They are native to a small portion of land in the Carolinas and nowhere else. Sadly, the long leaf pine savannahs and Carolina bays that they call home are being gobbled up by golf courses, pine plantations, and housing developments. The Venus fly trap (as well as over 100 other endangered species) are quickly losing the only habitat in the world that they exist. 

Of the 107 Venus fly trap populations that remain, only 65 of them are located on protected land. If habitat destruction wasn't enough, plant collectors, both legal and illegal, descend upon this region to get their hands on wild fly traps. This, my friends, is the definition of stupidity and greed. A simple internet search will turn up countless hobbyists and nurseries alike that culture these plants in captivity. It isn't very hard to do and it can be done on a massive scale. 

There is simply no reason to have to harvest Venus fly traps from the wild. None. Despite the plight of this unique species, legal protection of the Venus fly trap is almost non existent. It is listed as a "species of special concern" in North Carolina, which basically means nothing. For poachers, this really doesn't matter. Thousands of plants are stolen from the wild on protected and unprotected lands alike. Recent felony charges against Venus fly trap poachers offer some hope that the situation may be changing but that still does nothing to protect plants that, through senseless loopholes, are collected legally. 

This circles back to those plants we often see for sale in grocery stores. If they are in a red pot with a clear plastic cup on top, you can almost guarantee they came from the Fly-Trap Farm. This company openly admits to buying and selling plants collected from the wild. Despite the afore mentioned fact that culturing them in captivity is done with relative ease, the demand for these carnivorous curiosities coupled with their perceived disposability means that wild populations of this already threatened plant are growing smaller and smaller. 

Venus fly traps are endemics. They grow nowhere else in the world. If their habitat is destroyed and demand for wild plants continues, there is no Plan B. This species will be lost to the world forever. Again, there is no reason to buy wild collected plants. Plenty of hobbyists and nurseries such as The Carnivore Girl, Meadowview Biological Research Station, and California Carnivores (just to name a few) offer reasonably priced cultivated Venus fly traps. Whereas it is difficult or even impossible to squash poaching for good, we as consumers can always vote with our wallets. 

It is tough to say whether or not there is hope for the Venus fly trap and its neighbors. This region of the Carolinas is growing in its human population. So many Venus fly trap populations have already been lost forever and more are likely to disappear in the near future. There may be hope, however, and it comes in the form of land protection. Recent acquisitions of large tracts of Venus fly trap habitat are promising. Regardless, unless the public speaks up about the plight of these long leaf pine savannahs and Carolina bays, no one is going to listen. Plants deserve the same protection as animals. Heck, we wouldn't have any cute and fuzzy megafauna if it were not for healthy plant populations. Protecting plants needs to be a priority. 

Photo Credit: NC Orchid (http://bit.ly/1MUlE0x)

Further Reading:
http://archive.audubonmagazine.org/features0803/carnivorousplants.html

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/39636/0

http://wunc.org/post/north-carolina-enacts-venus-flytrap-theft-laws-how-big-problem-really#stream/0