Feed Me, Seymour!

In the spirit of spooky-ness, today I would like to introduce you to one of the creepiest plants that I know of. I spent a lot of time debating on which species could be considered the "creepiest" but after much deliberation I decided it was Hydnora africana.

This plant has no common name but regardless, the ecology of this species is quite fascinating. Hydnora africana is native to southern Africa and as you can probably tell from the picture, it produces no leaves and no chlorophyll. Instead of wasting energy on producing its own food, H. africana has resorted to parasitism. It is a root parasite on members of the family Euphorbiaceae. It taps into the roots of a host plant using specialized structures called "haustoria." In this way they are able to gather all their nutritional needs from their host. Once H. africana has obtained enough energy it will produce a flower.

The flower is all you will ever see of this plant. The strange, scaly structure emerges from the ground underneath its host. Three slits begin to form, each lined with white, hair-like structures. At first these structures remain intact. The spaces between are just big enough to allow entry of pollinators, which in this case are dung beetles. Once the flower opens these slits it begins to produce some heat, not unlike what we see in many aroids. The heat helps to spread the scent and the smell is what you would expect from a plant trying to attract dung beetles - it smells like feces.


When a beetle arrives looking for some fresh poop, it enters the flower through those slits and falls down into the trap. The rest of the flower consists of a tube-like structure underground. To keep the beetles from escaping H. africana employs a trick used by many carnivorous pitcher plants. Lining the walls are downward pointing hairs that prevent the beetles from crawling out before their job is complete. Once inside, the beetles are drawn to the center where the smell is emitted. Here they are generously dusted with pollen. If the beetles have arrived after a previous H. africana visit then they will also deposit pollen and thus pollination is achieved. Once the plant releases pollen onto the beetles, the hairs lining the wall relax and the slits open completely, allowing the beetles to escape.

I hope some day to see this plant in person. To the best of my knowledge it has only been grown in captivity once. Seeds were sown in a pot containing a known host species of Euphorbia. It took a very long time for germination and even longer to mature and produce a flower. Either way this creepy species is actually quite fascinating.

Photo Credit: [1] [2]

Further Reading: [1] [2] [3]

The Forgotten Zingirberales

Let's dedicate this morning to remembering the forgotten Zingiberales in the family Lowiaceae. This largely overlooked family contains one genus - Orchidantha. Their namesake comes from the uncanny resemblance their flowers have to those of orchids. One species is so easily mistaken that taxonomists named it Orchidantha maxillarioides, which means "Orchid flower that looks like a Maxillaria."

Not much is known about this group. They hail from southern China to Borneo and some species have evolved a pollination syndrome with dung beetles. Aside from that, this family is wide open for investigation as well as more respect!

Photo Credits: Tom Ballinger (https://www.flickr.com/photos/polylepis/) and Scholtz, C. H., Davis, A. L. V. and Kryger, U.

Further Reading: