Giant Ferns

Although the days of forests full of towering pteridophytes has long since vanished, a few giants still remain. Some of the largest ferns alive today hail from the genus Angiopteris and they are truly massive. To stand beneath their fronds is to be transported back hundreds of millions of years.

The mule's foot ferns (as they are commonly referred to) belong to an ancient lineage. The family, Marattiaceae, is thought to have diverged from the more familiar fern lineages very early on in their evolutionary history. As such, they have more in common with the grapeferns (Ophioglossales), whisk ferns (Psilotales), and horsetails (Equisetales) than they do more familiar extant ferns. One of the more bizarre qualities of this genus is the way in which they disperse their spores. A pressure differential is created inside the sporangium that eventually leads to cavitation. As the air space within implodes, the spores are launched outwards from the fronds at high speeds.

The most obvious feature, however, is their size. Angiopteris are some of the largest ferns on our planet. Arising from an odd looking globular mass are massive fiddle heads. These gradually unfurl into fronds of epic proportions. The record for frond size goes to Angiopteris evecta. An individual growing in Java produced fronds that were 29 feet 6 inches (9 meters) long! Amazingly enough, these fronds are capable of moving up or down depending on the weather.

Such movements are no small feat for a frond of that size. It is all thanks to an area of the petiole known as the pulvinus. The pulvini are swollen regions at the base of the petiole that expand or contract based on water pressure within. Angiopteris evecta produces the largest pulvini of any plant in the world.

Angiopteris can be found growing native from Madagascar and throughout vairous islands of the South Pacific. It is hard to get an accurate species count as the taxonomic status of many "species" are still up for debate. Although something like 200 species have been described, only a small handful of these are recognized in most modern floras. Sadly, many of these are threatened by habitat loss in their home range. The same can't be said elsewhere. Some Angiopteris have become quite invasive in places like Hawai'i and Jamaica. Because of their unique evolutionary history, their bizarre appearance, and their massive size, they been planted far outside of their native range. Research has shown that many of these ferns are much more tolerant of varying environmental conditions than that of their native forests, making any new introductions quite risky.

Photo Credits: [1] [2]

Further Reading: [1] [2] [3]