The orchid mantis is a very popular critter these days, and rightly so. Native to southeast Asia, they are beautiful examples of how intricately the forces of natural selection can operate on a genome. The reasoning behind such mimicry is pretty apparent, right? The mantis mimics an orchid flower and thus, has easy access to unsuspecting prey.
Not so fast...
Despite its popularity as an orchid mimic, there is no evidence that this species is mimicking a specific flower. Most of the pictures you see on the internet are actually showing orchid mantids sitting atop cultivated Phalaenopsis or Dendrobium orchids that simply do not occur in the wild. Observations from the field have shown that the orchid mantis is frequently found on the flowers of Straits meadowbeauty (Melastoma polyanthum). A study done in 2013 looked at whether or not the mantids disguise offers an attractive stimulus to potential prey. Indeed, there is some evidence for UV absorption as well as convincing bilateral symmetry that is very flower-like. They also exhibit the ability to change their color to some degree depending on the background.
Despite our predilection for finding patterns (even when there are none) it is far more likely that this species has evolved to present a "generalized flower-like stimulus." In other words, they may simply succeed in tapping into pollinators' bias towards bright, colorful objects. We see similar strategies in non-rewarding flowering plants that simply offer a large enough stimulus that pollinators can't ignore them. The use of colored mantis models has provided some support for this idea. Manipulating the overall shape and color of these models had no effect on the number of pollinators attracted to them.
The most interesting aspect of all of this is that the most convincing (and most popular) mimicking the orchid mantis displays is during the juvenile phase. Indeed, most pictures circulating around the web of these insects are those of immature mantids. The adults tend to look rather drab, with long, brownish wing covers. However, they still maintain some aspects of the juvenile traits.
The fact of the matter is, we still don't know very much about this species. It is speculated that the mimicry is both for protection and for hunting. As O'Hanlon (2016) put it, "The orchid mantis' predatory strategy can be interpreted as a form of 'generalized food deception' rather than 'floral mimicry'." It just goes to show you how easily popular misconceptions can spread. Until more studies are performed, the orchid mantis will continue to remain a beautiful mystery.
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