One Badass Moss

Badass and moss are two words that don't find themselves in the same sentence very often, if ever. Today I would like to introduce you to one moss that is certainly worth such a description. Meet Ceratodon purpureus, sometimes referred to as "fire moss." This lowly bryophyte is tough as nails and enjoys a global distribution because of it. From fires and heavy metal pollution to living in our most densely populated urban areas, this moss is a survivor. What's more, its ecology is absolutely fascinating.

Fire moss is truly cosmopolitan. It can be found on every continent and may only lose ground in the tropics where it is replaced by its close relatives. Though we often think of mosses as delicate denizens of shaded forest floors, fire moss is anything but. This is a disturbance-loving species. It gets the name fire moss for its habit of turning up in profusion following wildfires. Cleared of its competition, fire mosses growth can be quite explosive.

Being able to grow on a variety of substrates means that fire moss is equally at home in man-made habitats. It can be found growing in and along sidewalk cracks, old roofs, depressions in asphalt, and on wooden structures. What's more, it can tolerate pollution levels that would normally kill most mosses. One study found that moss grown on mine soils contaminated with toxic levels of heavy metals showed absolutely no decrease in fitness. In fact, they were indistinguishable from moss grown on clean soils.

This moss' lifecycle is ephemeral. Because it needs disturbance to persist, natural succession usually causes it to disappear from a site after a decade or two. Its spores, however, can remain viable for upwards of 16 years in the soil until fire, bulldozer, or any other large-scale disturbance opens the land again.

One of the strangest aspects of this fire moss is how it reproduces. Like all mosses, male gametophytes produce sperm that must make their way to the female gametophyte. They do this by swimming. Whereas moss species living in wet environments can let rain do the work of uniting the sex cells, fire moss has evolved a strategy more familiar to the flowering plants.

It was found that fire moss emits complex volatile scents. What's more, these scents are produced at different rates in the different sexes with females producing much more scent than males. It was found that microarthropods, specifically springtails, are attracted to these scents. Close investigation revealed that springtails significantly increased the fertilization rates in fire moss, hinting at quite a specific reproductive relationship between these organisms, both of which are representatives of some of the first organisms to ever make it onto land.

If this story has not convinced you that fire moss is one badass bryophyte I don't know what will. It is amazing to think that such an incredible organism is probably living out its life a stones throw away from where you are sitting right now.

Photo Credit: Ian Sutton (http://bit.ly/1LqqpMY)

Further Reading:
http://www.publish.csiro.au/?paper=BT9650303

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7416/full/nature11330.html

http://bit.ly/1U4lE2G