Eastern North America's Temperate Rainforest

I have often remarked that working in the southern Appalachian Mountains during the summer feels more like working in a rainforest than it does an eastern deciduous forest. Lots of rain, high humidity, and a bewildering array of flora and fauna conjure up images of some far away jungle. Only winter can snap this view out of ones head. I recently learned, however, that these feelings are not misplaced. Indeed, this region of southern Appalachia is considered a temperate rainforest. 

These mountains are old. They arose some 480 million years ago and have been shaping life in this region of North America ever since. Another thing these mountains are quite good at is creating their own weather systems. Here in southern Appalachia, warm, wet air from the Gulf of Mexico and western Atlantic blows northward until it hits the Appalachian Mountains. The mountainous terrain comprising parts of Pisgah, Nantahala, and Chattahoochee National Forests has been referred to as "the Blue Wall" and is responsible for the unique conditions that created this temperate rainforest.

As this air rises over their peaks, it begins to cool. As it does, water in the air condenses. This results in torrents of rain. On average, this area receives anywhere from 60 to 100+ inches of rain every year. The Appalachian temperate rainforest is second only to the Pacific Northwest in terms of rainfall in North America. All of this water and heat coupled with the age and relative stability of this ecosystem over time has led to the explosion of biodiversity we know and love today. 

Life abounds in the southern Apps. The plant diversity can be rather intimidating as species from the north mix with those coming up from the south. For instance, there are more tree species in these mountains than in all of Europe.  Rates of endemism in these mountains, both in terms of flora and fauna, are remarkable. There are relics of bygone eras that never expanded their range following repeated glaciations. What's more, a multitude of species combinations can be found as you go from low to high elevations. 

At lower elevation, forests are dominated by American beech (Fagus grandifolia), yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis), maple (Acer spp.), birch (Betula spp.), and oak (Quercus spp.). Magnolias cover the humid coves. Mid elevations boast birches, mountain ash (Sorbus americana), and mountain maple (Acer spicatum). High elevations contain fraser fir (Abies fraseri) and redspruce (Picea rubens). Both the understory and the the mountain balds are home to a staggering array of different Heaths (Ericaceae). From Rhododendrons to azaleas and mountain laurels, the colors are like those lifted from an abstract painting. The forest floor is where I focus most of my energy. It is hard to capture the diversity of this habitat in only a few paragraphs. What I can say is that I haven't even scratched the surface. It seems like there is something new to see around every corner. 

The point I am trying to make is that this region is quite special. It is something worth protecting. From development to mining and changes in temperature and precipitation, human activities are exacting quite a toll on the Appalachian Mountains. The system is changing and there is no telling what the future is going to look like. Conserving wild places is a must. There is no way around it. Luckily there is a reason people love this place so very much. There are a lot of dedicated folks out there working to protect and conserve everything that makes southern Appalachia what it is. Get out there, enjoy, and support your local land trust!

Further Reading:  [1] 

Pitcher's Thistle and the Dunes It Calls Home

Sand dunes are harsh habitats for any organism to make a living. They are hot, they are low in nutrients, water doesn't stick around for very long, and they can be incredibly unstable. Despite these obstacles, dunes around the world host rather unique floras comprised of plants well suited to these conditions. Sadly, we humans have been pretty good at destroying many of these dune habitats. This is especially true along the shores of the Great Lakes. To put this in perspective, I would like us to take a closer look at a special Great Lakes dune denizen. 

Meet Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri). It is a true dune plant and is endemic to the shores of the upper Great Lakes. Its a rather lanky plant, often looking as if it is having a hard time supporting its own weight. Despite its unkempt look, adult plants can reach heights of 3 feet, which is quite impressive given where it lives. It is covered in silvery hairs, giving the plant a shiny appearance. These hairs likely protect the plant from the onslaught of sun, abrasive wind-blown sand, and desiccation. One of the benefits of growing in such inhospitable places is that historically speaking, Pitcher's thistle could grow with little competition. Individual plants grow for roughly 5 to 8 years before flowering. After seeds are produced, the plant dies. The seedlings are then free to develop without being shaded out. 

The last century or so have not been good to Pitcher's thistle. Shoreline development, altered disturbance regimes, and isolation of various populations have fragmented its range and reduced its genetic diversity. To make matters worse, its remaining habitat is still shrinking. Shoreline development has altered wave action that is vital to these dune habitats. Waves that once brought in new sediments and built dunes are largely carving away what's left. They are eroding at an alarming rate that even dune-adapted plants like Pitcher's thistle can't keep up with. Recreational use of these habitats adds another layer as heavy foot traffic carves deep scars into these dunes, furthering their demise. 

One silver lining in all of this is that dedicated researchers are paying close attention to the natural history of this species. They have discovered some fascinating things that will help in the recovery of this special plant. For instance, it has been observed that although trampling doesn't necessarily kill Pitcher's thistle, it does damage sensitive buds. This often results in plants developing multiple flower heads. Although this sounds like a benefit, researchers discovered that these damaged plants actually produce fewer viable seeds despite producing more flowers. 

Also, they have found that American goldfinches are playing a considerable role in its reproductive success. Despite the tightly clasping, spiny bracts that protect the seeds, goldfinches have been found to reduce seed production by 90% as they forage for food and the fluffy seed hairs for nest building. Evidence suggests that goldfinches are more likely to target small, isolated populations of Pitcher's thistle rather than large, contiguous patches. The reason for this is anyone's guess but it does suggest that they way around this issue is to supplement dwindling populations with new plants grown from seed. 

Without intervention, it is very likely that Pitcher's thistle would go extinct in the near future. Luckily, researchers and federal officials are teaming up to make sure that doesn't happen. Long term population monitoring is in place throughout its range and a sandbox technique has been developed for germinating and growing up new individuals to supplement wild populations. Through habitat restoration efforts, supplementing of existing and the creation of new populations, the future of this charismatic dune thistle has gotten a little bit brighter. It isn't out of the metaphorical woods but there is reason for hope. 

Photo Credit: [1] 

Further Reading: [1]

1,730 New Plant Species Were Described in 2016

Manihot debilis

Manihot debilis

The discovery of a new animal species is celebrated the world over. At the same time, plants are lucky to ever make headlines. This is a shame considering that plants form the backbone of all terrestrial ecosystems. The conversation is starting to change, however, as more and more people are waking up to the fact that plants are fascinating organisms in their own right. In a recent addition of Kew Garden's State of the World's Plants, they report on 1,730 newly described plant species from all over the world.

Begonia rubrobracteolata

The discovery of these new plants species is truly a global event. Central and South America, Africa, tropical Asia, and Madagascar saw the addition of many intriguing taxonomic novelties. For instance, Malaysia can now add 29 new species of Begonia to their flora. Africa can now boast to be the home of the largest species of Bougainvillea in the world. Standing at 3 meters in height, it is an impressive sight to behold. Madagascar was particularly fruitful (pun intended), adding 150 new species, subspecies, and varieties of Croton all thanks to the diligent work of the late Alan Radcliffe-Smith. 

Commicarpus macrothamnum  Photo Credit: Ib Friis

Commicarpus macrothamnum Photo Credit: Ib Friis

One of the most exciting finds from Madagascar was a new genus of climbing bamboos named Sokinochloa. So far only 7 species have been named. The key to unlocking the diversity of this new genus lies in their flowers, which are not produced on a regular basis. Like many bamboos, the Sokinochloa produce flowers at intervals of 10 to 50+ years. The new discoveries did not consist entirely of small understory herbs either. Some of those 1,730 plants were massive forest trees.

Sokinochloa australis

Sokinochloa australis

One of these new tree species is Africa's first endemic species of Calophyllum (Calophyllaceae). They were discovered during a survey for a uranium mine and, with fewer than 10 mature individuals, are considered critically endangered. Expeditions in Central America and the Andes turned up 27 new tree species in the genus Sloanea (Elaeocarpaceae) as well as 10 new species Trichilia, a genus of trees belonging to the mahogany family (Meliaceae).

The list could go on and on. Even more exiting is the fact that 2016 wasn't a particularly exceptional year for new plant discoveries. An estimated 2,000 new plant species are discovered on an annual basis. We aren't even close to grasping the full extent of plant diversity on this planet. What plants desperately need, however, is more attention. More attention leads to more scrutiny, more scrutiny leads to better understanding, and better understanding leads to improved conservation efforts. We could be doing a lot better with conservation efforts if we considered the plants whose very existence is essential for all life as we know it.

Barleria mirabilis  Photo Credit :  Quentin Luke

Barleria mirabilis Photo Credit: Quentin Luke

Tibouchina rosanae  Photo Credit: W Milliken

Tibouchina rosanae Photo Credit: W Milliken

Englerophytum paludosum  Photo Credit: Xander van der Burgt

Englerophytum paludosum Photo Credit: Xander van der Burgt

You can download your own copy of the State of the World's Plants by clicking here

All photos thanks to the Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew unless otherwise noted.

Orchid Dormancy Mediated by Fungi

North America's terrestrial orchids seem to have mastered the disappearing act. When stressed, these plants can enter into a vegetative dormancy, existing entirely underground for years until the right conditions return for them to grow and bloom. Cryptic dormancy periods like this can make assessing populations quite difficult. Orchids that were happy and flowering one year can be gone the next... and the next... and the next...

How and why this dormancy is triggered has confused ecologists and botanists alike. Certainly stress is a factor but what else triggers the plant into going dormant? According to a recent paper published in the American Journal of Botany, the answer is fungal.

Orchids are the poster children for mycorrhizal symbioses. Every aspect of an orchid's life is dependent on these fungal interactions. Despite our knowledge of the importance of mycorrhizal presence in orchid biology, no one had looked at how the abundance of mycorrhizal fungi influenced the life history of these charismatic plants until now.

By observing the presence and abundance of a family of orchid associated fungi known as Russulaceae, researchers found that the abundance of mycorrhizal fungi in the environment is directly related to whether or not an orchid will emerge. The team focused on a species of orchid known commonly as the small whorled pogonia (Isotria medeoloides). Populations of this federally threatened orchid are quite variable and assessing their numbers is difficult.

The team found that the abundance of mycorrhizal fungi is not only related to prior emergence of these plants but could also be used as a predictor of future emergence. This has major implications for orchid conservation overall. It's not enough to simply protect orchids, we must also protect the fungal communities they associate with.

Research like this highlights the need for a holistic habitat approach to conservation issues. So many species are partners in symbiotic relationships and we simply can't value one partner over the other. If conditions change to the point that they no longer favor the mycorrhizal partner, it stands to reason that it would only be a matter of years before the orchids disappeared for good.

Photo Credit: NC Orchid

Further Reading: [1]

The Longleaf Pine: A Champion of the Coastal Plain

As far as habitat types are concerned, the longleaf pine savannas of southeastern North America are some of the most stunning. What's more, they are also a major part of one of the world's great biodiversity hotspots. Sadly, they are disappearing fast. Agriculture and other forms of development are gobbling up the southeast coastal plain at a bewildering rate. For far too long we have ignored, or at the very least, misunderstood these habitats. Today I would like to give a brief introduction to the longleaf pine and the habitat it creates.

The longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) is an impressive species. Capable of reaching heights of 100 feet or more, it towers over a landscape that boggles the mind. It is a landscape born of fire, of which the long leaf pine is supremely adapted to dealing with. These pines start out life quite differently than other pines. Seedlings do not immediately reach for the canopy. Instead, young long leaf pines spend their first few years looking more like a grass than a tree. Lasting anywhere between 5 to 12 years, the grass stage of development gives the young tree a chance to save up energy before it makes any attempt at vertical growth. 

The reason for this is fire. If young long leaf pines were to start their canopy race immediately, they would very likely be burned to death before they grew big enough to escape the harmful effects of fire. Instead, the sensitive growing tip is safely tucked away in the dense needle clusters. If a fire burns through the area only the tips of the needles will be scorched, leaving the rest of the tree safe and sound. During this stage, the tree is busy putting down an impressive root system. The taproot alone can reach depths of 6 to 9 feet!

Once a hardy root system has been formed and enough energy has been acquired, young longleaf pines go through a serious growth spurt. Starting in later winter or early spring, the grass-like tuft will put up a white growth tip called a candle. This tip shoots upwards quite rapidly, growing a few feet in only a couple of months. This is sometimes referred to as the bottlebrush phase because no horizontal branches are formed during this time. The goal at this point is to get the sensitive growing tip as far away from the ground as possible so as to avoid damaging fires. It is fun to encounter long leaf pines at this stage because like any young adult, they look a bit awkward.

Photo Credit: Woodlot - Wikimedia Commons

Photo Credit: Woodlot - Wikimedia Commons

Once the tree reaches about 6 to 10 feet in height, it will finally begin to produce horizontal branches. This doesn't stop its canopy bid, however, as it still will put on upwards of 3 feet of vertical growth each year! Every year its bark grows thicker and thicker, thus each year it becomes more and more resistant to fire. Far from being a force to cope with, fire unwittingly gives longleaf pines a helping hand by clearing the habitat of potential competitors that are less adapted to dealing with burns. After about 30 years of growth, longleaf pines reach maturity and will start to produce fertile cones.

Before European settlement, longleaf pine savanna covered roughly 90,000,000 acres of southeastern North America. Clearing and development have reduced that to a mere 5% of its former glory. For far too long its coastal plain habitat was thought to be a flat, monotonous region created by early human burning in the last few thousand years. We now know how untrue those assumptions are. Sure, the region is flat but it is anything but monotonous. Additionally, the coastal plain is one of the most lightning prone regions in North America. Fires would have been a regular occurrence long before any humans ever got there. 

Red indicates forest loss between 2011 and 2014. http://glad.umd.edu/gladmaps

Evidence suggests that this coastal plain habitat has remained relatively stable for the last 62,000 years. As such, it is full of unique species. Surveys of the southeastern coastal plain have revealed multiple centers of plant endemism, rivaled in North America only by the southern Appalachian Mountains. In fact, taken together, the coastal plain forests are widely considered one of the world's biodiversity hotspots! Of the 62,000 vascular plants found in these forests, 1,816 species (29.3%) are endemic. Its not just plants either. Roughly 1,400 species of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals rely on the coast plain forests for survival.

Luckily, we are starting to wake up to the fact that we are losing one of the world's great biodiversity hotspots. Efforts are being put forth in order to conserve and restore at least some of what has been lost. Still, the forests of southeastern North America are disappearing at an alarming rate. Despite comprising only 2% of the world's forest cover, the southern forests are being harvested to supply 12% of the world's wood products. This is simply not sustainable. If nothing is done to slow this progress, the world stands to lose yet another biodiversity hotspot. 

If this sounds as bad to you as it does to me then you probably want to do something. Please check out what organizations such as The Longleaf Alliance, Partnership For Southern Forestland Conservation, The Nature Conservancy, and The National Wildlife Federation are doing to protect this amazing region. Simply click the name of the organization to find out more.

Further Reading: [1] [2] [3] [4] 

Important Lessons From Ascension Island

Located in the middle of the South Atlantic, Ascension Island is probably not on the top of anyone's travel list. This bleak volcanic island doesn't have much to offer the casual tourist but what it lacks in amenities it makes up for in a rich and bizarre history. Situated about 2,200 km east of Brazil and 3,200 km west of Angola, this remote island is home to one of the most remarkable ecological experiments that is rarely talked about. The roots of this experiment stem back to a peculiar time in history and the results have so much to teach the human species about botany, climate, extinction, speciation, and much more. What follows is not a complete story; far from it actually. However, my hope is that you can take away some lessons from this and, at the very least, use it as a jumping off point for future discussions. 

Ascension Island is, as land masses go, quite young. It arose from the ocean floor a mere 1 million years ago and is the result of intense volcanic activity. Estimates suggest that volcanism was still shaping this island as little as 1000 years ago. Its volcanic birth, young age, isolated conditions, and nearly non-existent soils meant that for most of its existence, Ascension Island was a depauperate place. It was essentially a desert island. Early sailors saw it as little more than a stopover point to gather turtles and birds to eat as they sailed on to other regions. It wasn't until 1815 that any permanent settlements were erected on Ascension. 

In looking for an inescapable place to imprison Napoleon Bonaparte, the Royal Navy claimed Ascension in the name of King George III. Because Napoleon had a penchant for being an escape artist, the British decided to build a garrison on the island in order to make sure Napoleon would not be rescued. In doing so, the limitations of the island quickly became apparent. There were scant soils in which to grow vegetables and fresh water was nearly nonexistent. 

The native flora of Ascension was minimal. It is estimated that, until the island was settled, only about 25 to 30 plant species grew on the island. Of those 10 (2 grasses, 2 shrubs, and 6 ferns) were considered endemic. If the garrison was to persist, something had to be done. Thus, the Green Mountain garden was established. British marines planted this garden at an elevation of roughly 2000 feet. Here the thin soils supported a handful of different fruits and vegetables. In 1836, Ascension was visited by a man named Charles Darwin. Darwin took note of the farm that had developed and, although he admired the work that was done in making Ascension "livable" he also noted that the island was "destitute of trees."

One of Ascension Island's endemic ferns -  Pteris adscensionis

One of Ascension Island's endemic ferns - Pteris adscensionis

Others shared Darwin's sentiment. The prevailing view of this time period was that any land owned by the British empire must be transformed to support people. Thus, the wheels of 'progress' turned ever forward. Not long after Darwin's visit, a botanist by the name of Joseph Hooker paid a visit to Ascension. Hooker, who was a fan of Darwin's work, shared his sentiments on the paucity of vegetation on the island. Hooker was able to convince the British navy that vegetating the island would capture rain and improve the soil. With the support of Kew Gardens, this is exactly what happened. Thus began the terraforming of Green Mountain.

For about a decade, Kew shipped something to the tune of 330 different species of plants to be planted on Ascension Island. The plants were specifically chosen to withstand the harsh conditions of life on this volcanic desert in the middle of the South Atlantic. It is estimated that 5,000 trees were planted on the island between 1860 and 1870. Most of these species came from places like Argentina and South Africa. Soon, more plants and seeds from botanical gardens in London and Cape Town were added to the mix. The most incredible terraforming experiment in the world was underway on this tiny volcanic rock. 

By the late 1870's it was clear the the experiment was working. Trees like Norfolk pines (Araucaria heterophylla), Eucalyptus spp. and figs (Ficus spp.), as well as different species of banana and bamboo had established themselves along the slopes of Green Mountain. Where there was once little more than a few species of grass, there was now the start of a lush cloud forest. The vegetation community wasn't the only thing that started to change on Ascension. Along with it changed the climate. 

Estimates of rainfall prior to these terraforming efforts are sparse at best. What we have to go on are anecdotes and notes written down by early sailors and visitors. These reports, however, paint a picture of astounding change. Before terraforming began, it was said that few if any clouds ever passed overhead and rain rarely fell. Those living on the island during the decade or so of planting attested to the fact that as vegetation began to establish, the climate of the island began to change. One of the greatest changes was the rain. Settlers on the island noticed that rain storms were becoming more frequent. Also, as one captain noted "seldom more than a day passes over now without a shower or mist on the mountain." The development of forests on Ascension were causing a shift in the island's water cycle. 

Plants are essentially living straws. Water taken up by the roots travels through their tissues eventually evaporating from their leaves. The increase in plant life on the island was putting more moisture into the air. The humid microclimate of the forest understory cooled the surrounding landscape. Water that would once have evaporated was now lingering. Pools were beginning to form as developed soils retained additional moisture.

Now, if you are anything like me, at this point you must be thinking to yourself "but what about the native flora?!" You have every right to be concerned. I don't want to paint the picture that everything was fine and dandy on Ascension Island. It wasn't. Even before the terraforming experiment began, humans and other trespassers left their mark on the local biota. With humans inevitably comes animals like goats, donkeys, pigs, and rats. These voracious mammals went to work on the local vegetation. The early ecology that was starting to develop on Ascension was rocked by these animals. Things were only made worse when the planting began.

Of the 10 endemic plants native to Ascension Island, 3 went extinct, having been pushed out by all of the now invasive plant species brought to the island. Another endemic, the Ascension Island parsley fern (Anogramma ascensionis) was thought to be extinct until four plants were discovered in 2010. The native flora of Ascension island was, for the most part, marginalized by the introduction of so many invasive species. This fact was not lost of Joseph Hooker. He eventually came to regret his ignorance to the impacts terraforming would have on the native vegetation stating “The consequences to the native vegetation of the peak will, I fear, be fatal, and especially to the rich carpet of ferns that clothed the top of the mountain when I visited it." Still, some plants have adapted to life among their new neighbors. Many of the ferns that once grew terrestrially, can now be found growing epiphytically among the introduced trees on Green Mountain. 

The Ascension Island parsley fern ( Anogramma ascensionis )

The Ascension Island parsley fern (Anogramma ascensionis)

Today Ascension Island exists as a quandary for conservation ecologists. On the one hand the effort to protect and conserve the native flora and fauna of the island is of top priority. On the other hand, the existence of possibly the greatest terraforming effort in the world begs for ecological research and understanding. A balance must be sought if both goals are to be met. Much effort is being put forth to control invasive vegetation that is getting out of hand. For instance, the relatively recent introduction of a type of mesquite called the Mexican thorn (Prosopis juliflora) threatens the breeding habitat of the green sea turtle. Efforts to remove this aggressive species are now underway. Although it is far too late to reverse what has been done to Ascension Island, it nonetheless offers us something else that may be more important in the long run: perspective.

If anything, Ascension Island stands as a perfect example of the role plants play in regulating climate. The introduction of these 330+ plant species to Ascension Island and the subsequent development of a forest was enough to completely change the weather of that region. Where there was once a volcanic desert there is a now a cloud forest. With that forest came clouds and rain. If adding plants to an island can change the climate this much, imagine what the loss of plants from habitats around the world is doing. 

Each year an estimated 18 million acres of forest are lost from this planet. As human populations continue to rise, that number is only going to get bigger. It is woefully ignorant to assume that habitat destruction isn't having an influence on global climate. It is. Plants are habitat and when they go, so does pretty much everything else we hold near and dear (not to mention require for survival). If the story of Ascension does anything, I hope it serves as a reminder of the important role plants play in the function of the ecosystems of our planet. 

The endemic Ascension spurge ( Euphorbia origanoides )

The endemic Ascension spurge (Euphorbia origanoides)

Photo Credits: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]

Further Reading: [1] [2] [3]

 

The Amazing Radiation of Hawaii's Lobeliads

Hawai'i is home to so many interesting species of plants, many of which are found nowhere else in the world. One group, however, stands out among the rest in that it represents the largest plant radiation not just in Hawai'i but on any island archipelago in the world!

I am of course talking about the Hawaiian lobelioids. We are familiar with species found on North America, which include the lovely cardinal flower (Lobelia cardinalis) and the great blue lobelia (Lobelia siphilitica), but the 6 genera that comprise the Hawaiian radiation are something quite different altogether.

Numbering roughly 125 species in total (and many extinct species as well), it was long thought that they were the result of at least 3 separate invasions. Thanks to recent DNA analysis, it is now believed that all 6 genera are the result of one single invasion by a lobelia-like ancestor. This may seem ridiculous but, when you consider the fact that this invasion happened back when Gardner Pinnacles and French Frigate Shoals were actual islands and none of the extant islands were even in existence, then you can kind of grasp the time scales involved that produced such a drastic and varied radiation.

Sadly, like countless Hawaiian endemics, the invasion of the human species has spelled disaster. Hawaiian endemics are declining at an alarming rate. Introduced pigs and rats eat seeds, devour seedlings, and even go as far as to chew right through the stems of adult plants. To make matters worse, many species evolved to a specific suite of pollinators. Take the genus Clermontia for example. The flowers of these species are evolved for pollination by the island's endemic honey creepers. Due to avian malaria and other human impacts, many honey creepers are endangered and some have already gone extinct. Without their pollinators, many of these lobelioids are doomed to slow extinction if they haven't disappeared already. For some, what few populations remain are now fenced off and have to be hand pollinated. As I have said all too often, the future of this great radiation of plants is uncertain.

Photo Credits: Oakapples (http://bit.ly/OjOqhU), Forest and Kim Starr (http://bit.ly/1miCAA5), Dave Janas

Further Reading:

http://bit.ly/2aIviF5

http://bit.ly/2bh9Dpv

http://bit.ly/2b4i5dV

Brother of Hibiscus

Islands are known for their interesting flora and fauna. Until humans came on the scene, colonization events by different species on different islands were probably rare events, with long stretches of time in between. Because of this, islands are interesting experiments in evolution, often having endemic species found nowhere else in the world. Hawai'i was once home to many different kinds of endemic species. One such group are the Hibiscadelphus.

As you may have gathered by the name, Hibiscadelphus is a relative of hibiscus. The Latin name means "brother of Hibiscus." Unlike the widely splayed flowers of their relatives, Hibiscadelphus flowers never fully open. Instead, they form a tubular structure with a curved lower lip. The genus consists of 7 species. Four of these have gone completely extinct, two are only maintained in cultivation, and the remainder is barely holding on. There have been attempts to reestablish some species into other portions of their range but due to hybridization, these attempts were ceased. In my opinion this is a shame. In this case, a hybrid is better than losing both parental species and it would still be uniquely Hawaiian.

Why are Hibiscadelphus so rare? Well, humans have a sad history when it comes to colonizing islands. They bring with them a multitude of invasive species at a rate in which the local flora and fauna cannot adapt. They change the land through cultivation and development as well as by subduing natural fire regimes. Also, they wipe out keystone species, which causes a ripple effect throughout the environment. Hibiscadelphus have faced all of these threats and more. Pigs and rats eat their seeds, their habitats have been turned over for the ever-increasing human population, fires have been stopped, and some of their pollinators, the endemic honeycreepers, have also been driven to extinction thanks to avian pox and malaria. Sadly, this is a story that repeats itself time and time again all over the world. For now, the future of Hibiscadelphus is rather bleak.

Photo Credit: David Eickhoff

Further Reading:

http://bit.ly/2ao84X1

http://bit.ly/2aEfpkn

The Mountain Sweet Pitcher Plant

DSCN9285.JPG

I am fascinated by pitcher plants. The myriad shapes, sizes, and colors make them quite a spectacle. Add to that their carnivorous habit and what is not to love? I am used to having to visit bogs or coastlines to see them in person so you can imagine my surprise to learn that a small handful of pitcher plants haunt the mountains of Southern Appalachia.

DSCN9284.JPG

Sarracenia jonesii is a recent acquaintance of mine. I never knew this species existed until 2016. It is a slender pitcher plant whose traps grow taller and narrower than the purple pitcher plant (S. purpurea) but not nearly as tall and robust as species like S. leucophylla. Regardless of its size, this one interesting carnivore. One unique aspect of its ecology is the habitats in which it grows. What could be more strange than a pitcher plant clinging to sloping granite slabs?

DSCN2549.JPG

Most mountainous areas don't hold water for very long. Aside from bowls and the occasional lake, gravity makes short work of standing water. In southern Appalachia, this often results in impressive cascades where sheets of water flow over granite outcrops and balds. Where water moves slow enough to not wash soil and moss away, cataract bogs can form. Soils are so thin in these areas that trees and shrubs can't take root, thus keeping competition to a minimum. Because granite is rather inert, nutrients are scarce. All of these factors combine to make prime carnivorous plant habitat.

A cataract bog clinging to the side of a waterfall.

A cataract bog clinging to the side of a waterfall.

Along the edges of these cataract bogs, anywhere sphagnum and other mosses grow is where S. jonesii finds a home. One would think that growing in such hard-to-reach places would protect this interesting and unique carnivore. Sadly, that is not the case. To start with, S. jonesii was never common to begin with. Native to a small region of North and South Carolina, it is now only found in about 10 locations. 

Habitat destruction both direct and indirect (alterations in hydrology) has taken its toll on its numbers in the wild. To add insult to injury, poaching has become a serious issue. In fact, an all green population of this species was completely wiped out by greedy collectors looking to add something rare to their collection. The good news is that there are dedicated folks working on conserving and reintroducing this plant into the wild. In 2007, conservationists at Meadowview Biological Research Station, with help from the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation Grant, successfully reintroduced a population of S. jonesii to its former range.

Although the future remains uncertain for this species, it nonetheless has captured hearts and minds alike. Hopefully the charismatic nature of this species is enough to save it from extinction. I only wish such dedicated conservation efforts were directed at more imperiled plant species, both charismatic and not. 

Further Reading: [1] [2] [3]

The Fall of Corncockle

This switch from more traditional farming practices to industrialized monocultures has left a damaging legacy on ecosystems around the globe. This is especially true for unwanted plants. Species that once grew in profusion are now sprayed and tilled out of existence. Nowhere has this been better illustrated than for a lovely little plant known commonly as the corncockle (Agrostemma githago). 

This species was once a common weed in European wheat fields. Throughout much of the 19th and early 20th century, it was likely that most wheat sold contained a measurable level of corncockle seed. Its pink flowers would have juxtaposed heavily against the amber hue of grain. Indeed, its habit of associating with wheat has lead to its introduction around the globe. It can now be found growing throughout parts of North America, Australia, and New Zealand. 

However, in its home range of Europe, the corncockle isn't doing so well. The industrialization of farming dealt a huge blow to corncockle ecology. The broad-scale application of herbicides wreaked havoc on corncockle populations. Much more detrimental was the switch to winter wheat, which caused a decoupling between harvest time and seed set for the corncockle. Whereas it once synced quite nicely with regular wheat harvest, winter wheat is harvested before corncockle can set seed. As such, corncockle has become extremely rare throughout its native range and was even thought to be extinct in the UK. 

A discovery in 2014 changed all of that. National Trust assistant ranger Dougie Holden found a single plant flowering near a lighthouse. Extensive use of field guides and keys confirmed that this plant was indeed a corncockle, the first seen blooming in the UK in many decades. It is likely that the sole plant grew from seed churned up by vehicle traffic the season before. 

Photo Credit: sonnentau (bit.ly/1qo3XQK)

Further Reading:
Clapham, A.R., Tutin, T.G. and Warburg, E.F. 1968. Excursion Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press

Why You Should Never Buy Cypress Mulch

Gardening season is soon to be underway here in the northern hemisphere. This past weekend saw droves of people taking advantage of the nice weather by getting their hands dirty in the garden. A walk around the neighborhood brought with it a lot of smiles and a chance to reconnect with neighbors I haven't talked to in a while but it also brought with it something sinister. Lingering in the air was the scent of cypress mulch. Tons upon tons of it are being spread over gardens everywhere. One might ask "Whats the problem? Cypress mulch is more durable and more insect resistant than other mulches!"

WRONG!

Anymore today, these ideas are leftovers of a long gone era. Back when old growth cypress forests were still a thing, these centuries old trees did impart rot and pest resistance into their wood. Today, this is not the case. Because logging has taken most of the old growth cypress from places like Florida and Louisiana, mulch companies have had to resort to cutting down and mulching young, second and third growth cypress stands. Barely given the time to grow into the towering specimens their parents and grandparents once were, these young trees have not yet imparted the centuries worth of compounds into their wood that keep them from rotting and deter insect predators.

The saddest part of the cypress mulch industry is that they are destroying valuable and irreplaceable habitat for the myriad lifeforms that rely on cypress swamps for their existence. To add insult to injury, recovery of cypress trees is almost negligible anymore today due to the way we have managed our waterways. Cypress seedlings require inundation by freshwater and regular silt deposition in order to successfully germinate. A century of flood control, inundation by brackish water, as well as dam and ship canal building have completely upset this dynamic. Now, instead of building new habitat for cypress swamps, these sediments are washed away, far out into the Gulf of Mexico.

What staggeringly few people seem to care to realize is that cypress swamps are our first line of defense against hurricanes. Cypress swamps can cut the force of a storm surge by 90%. It has been estimated that the cypress swamps in Louisiana alone are worth a staggering $6.7 billion in storm protection every year. That is a lot of cash, people!

As with any other industry, the cypress mulch companies are driven by consumer demand. The simple act of individuals, communities, and local governments not purchasing this nasty product is all it will take to lessen the blow to these precious habitats. At the rate cypress is being cut, it will not take long for us to exhaust the resource entirely. As you are looking to do some gardening this year, and many years into the future, please keep these great trees in mind and stop buying cypress mulch. In lieu of wood and bark mulches, you should consider using shredded leaves from your property instead. They make excellent mulch and being locally sourced, the reduce the chances of introducing disease and other pests to your landscape. In the words of Captain Planet, "the power is yours!"

Photo Credit: Jesse Reeder (http://bit.ly/1wmQpn8)

Further Reading: [1] [2] [3] [4]






 

The Truth About Coffee

Mmm mmm coffee. This wonderful elixir has taken over the world. Though individual tastes and preferences vary, there is no denying that most folks who turn to coffee enjoy its effects as a stimulant. Many an In Defense of Plants post has been written in a coffee-fueled frenzy. Even as I write this piece, I am taking breaks to sip on a warm mug of the stuff. Coffee has plenty of proponents as well as its fair share of nay sayers but the health effects don't really concern me much. Today I would rather talk with you about the shrubs that are behind all of this. 

The coffee we drink comes from a handful of shrubs in the genus Coffea. Native to parts of Africa, these shrubs are distant relatives of plants like buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis) and the bedstraws (Galium sp.). The "beans" that we brew coffee from are not beans at all but rather a type of pit or stone found in the center of a bright red berry. Before they are roasted, the "beans" are actually green. Plants in this genus produce an alkaloid compound known as caffeine. Though it may seem strange, the purpose of caffeine is not to stimulate the human nervous system (though it is a wonderful side effect) but rather it is produced as a defense mechanism for the plant. Making this compound is a complex process that involves many metabolic steps within the tissues of the plant. There are certain factions out there who would like to argue that this is proof against evolution but, as always, evidence seems to be the downfall of their argument. 

Creationists will tell you that the adaptations we see throughout the living world are too complex to have happened by accident. In reality, there is a vast amount of evidence that disputes this. Caffeine is one such example. It has evolved independently multiple times in many different plant lineages. Looking at the genome of coffee, researchers at the University at Buffalo (my alma mater) found that the genes involved in the synthesis of caffeine did not arise all at once. Instead, the genes duplicated multiple times throughout the history of this genus with each duplication coding for another step in the process of producing the caffeine molecule. The interesting part is that each step of this evolutionary process produced a chemical that was itself useful to the plant. The precursor compounds are bitter and toxic to the kinds of animals that like to nibble on the plant. 

As it turns out, the benefits that the plants get from caffeine aren't restricted to defense either. Coffee, as well as other flowering plants such as citrus, produce small amounts of caffeine in their nectar. Researchers at Arizona State University found that bees were 3 times more likely to remember a flowers scent when there was caffeine in the nectar than if there wasn't. This serves a great benefit to the plant producing it because it means that its flowers are much more likely to get pollinated. As it turns out, humans aren't the only species that enjoys a good buzz from caffeine.

Before we get too excited over coffee, we must remember that is definitely has its downside. Worldwide, we humans drink roughly 2.25 billion cups of the stuff every day. In order to produce that much coffee, humans have turned somewhere around 11 million hectares of land into coffee plantations. This has come at an extreme cost to the environment. Also, being a tropical species, the types of habitat used to grow coffee were once lush, tropical rain forests. A majority of coffee consumed around the world is produced in monocultures. Where there once stood towering trees and a lush understory is now an open, chemically-laden field of coffee shrubs. There is hope, however, and it is rising in popularity. 

If you enjoy coffee as much as I do, you should certainly consider switching over to shade grown coffee. I have attached a fair amount of literature at the bottom of this post but the long story short of it is that growing coffee is much less harmful to the environment when it is grown in a forest rather than open plantations. The structural complexity of shade grown coffee farms allows a greater diversity of plant and animal species to coexist with one another. Species diversity and richness are significantly higher on shade grown farms than on open field plantations. 

So, there you have it. Coffee is as complex as it is interesting. We humans are simply lucky to have stumbled across a plant that interacts with our brain chemistry in wonderful ways. Certainly coffee has benefitted in the long run. 

Photo Credit: Ria Tan (http://bit.ly/1pFQD1J)

Further Reading:
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/345/6201/1181.full

https://asunews.asu.edu/20130307_beesandcaffeine


http://s.si.edu/1o6wOaj

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/08/120807101357.htm

http://bit.ly/1S6dLVV

The Curious Case of Hawaii's Endemic Orchids

Orchids and Hawai'i are nearly synonymous. It may come as a surprise then to learn that only three species of orchid are native to this lush archipelago. In fact, there are more non-native species of orchids growing in Hawai'i than there are native. Like much of Hawai'i's endemic flora and fauna, these three distantly related orchid species find themselves on the brink of extinction. How and why only three species of orchid came to call Hawai'i home is a great mystery and it is one that conservationists are struggling to understand before it is too late. 

Orchids produce the smallest seeds of any plants. These dust-like propagules can travel far and wide on the slightest breeze. If any plants were to make it to one of the worlds most remote island chains my bet would be on the orchids. Alas, until settlers arrived, Hawai'i was home to only three - the Hawaiian bog orchid (Platanthera holochila), the Hawai'i jewel-orchid (Anoectochilus sandvicensis), and the Hawai'i widelip orchid (Liparis hawaiensis). The ancestors of these plants must have traveled quite a distance to get to these islands. The Hawaiian bog orchid, for instance, can trace its ancestry back to a related species of Platanthera native to the Aleutian Islands whereas the other two likely blew in from Asia. 

These three species were once found in a variety of locations. Today, however, all of that has changed. Populations of each of Hawai'i's endemic orchids are declining at a rapid rate. In fact, the Hawaiian bog orchid is considered one of the most endangered orchids in the world. The causes of their decline is what one would expect from an island species - habitat destruction, the introduction and subsequent spread of invasive species, and just poor land management in general. It is strange though that so many orchid species from elsewhere in the world are thriving as their endemic cousins are declining. 

Though the exact reasons for this remain uncertain, some of it has to do with another invader - honeybees. Honeybees are native to Europe and are generalists in their foraging abilities. Until bees were were brought to Hawai'i, many introduced orchid species behaved themselves. There simply wasn't anything around to pollinate them. Once honeybees came onto the scene, a few of these introduced species such as the bamboo orchid (Arundina graminifolia) were suddenly able to reproduce. The tropical climate made the land ripe for the taking. But this is only part of the picture. There is another, more interesting conundrum that remains to be solved. 

Orchids absolutely require mycorrhizal fungi to germinate and grow. Why is it then that introduced orchids seem to be doing so much better than the Hawaiian endemics? Good question. Some orchids can be very specific about the fungi they will partner with whereas others are not. It could be that all of the introduced orchids that are naturalizing are generalists whereas the endemics are specialists. It could also be that the endemics simply can't handle the altered disturbance regimes brought on by modern society.

The real reason is probably some combination of these and many more but the fact of the matter remains, Hawai'i's native orchids are in trouble. Since they are not nearly as showy as other orchids they are rather overlooked. This is a shame because if they are lost from their native range, they are gone from the world forever. Luckily there are people out there like Dr. Nicole Hynson of the University of Hawai'i and Dr. Larry Zettler of Illinois College who are working to understand, propagate, and conserve these unique species. 

Photo Credits: University of Hawai'i Museum (http://bit.ly/1K8pjKC), Arkive (http://bit.ly/20kxg17), and G. Daida (http://bit.ly/1K8phCw

Further Reading:
http://bit.ly/1PKOV0C

http://s.si.edu/1QRn0el

http://s.si.edu/1Rjwd1g

http://s.si.edu/1W8bGMb

http://www2.hawaii.edu/~nhynson/Hynson_Lab/Welcome.html

http://www.ic.edu/LarryZettler

Screw Pines, Volcanism, and Diamonds

The association between geology and botany has always fascinated me. The closer you look, the more you can't separate the two. Rocks and minerals influence soil characteristics, which in turn influences which plant species will grow and where, which in turn influences soil properties. Take for instance the case of kimberlite.

Kimberlite is a volcanic rock whose origin is quite intense. Kimberlite is found in the form of large vertical columns, often referred to as pipes. They are the result of some seriously explosive volcanism. Intense heat and pressure builds deep within the mantle until it explodes upward, forming a column of this igneous rock. 

Over long spans of time, these pipes begin to weather and erode. This results in soil that is rich in minerals like magnesium, potassium, and phosphorous. As anyone who gardens can tell you, these are the ingredients of many fertilizers. In Africa where these sorts of pipes are well known, there is a species of plant that seems to take advantage of these conditions. 

It has been coined Pandanus candelabrum and it belongs to a group of plants called the screw pines. They aren't true pines but are instead a type of angiosperm. Now, the taxonomy of the genus Pandanus is a bit shaky. Systematics within the family as a whole has largely been based on fragmentary materials such as fruits and flowers. What's more, for much of its taxonomic history, each new collection was largely regarded as a new species. You might be asking why this is important. The answer has something to do with the kimberlite P. candelabrum grows upon. 

There is something other than explosive volcanic activity that makes kimberlite famous. It is mostly known for containing diamonds. In a 2015 paper, geologist Stephen E. Haggerty made this connection between P. candelabrum and kimberlite. As far as anyone can tell, the plant is a specialist on this soil type. As such, prospectors are now using the presence of this plant as a sort of litmus test for finding diamond deposits. This is why I think taxonomy becomes important. 

If P. candelabrum turns out not to be a unique species but rather a variation then perhaps this discovery doesn't mean much for the genus as a whole. However, if it turns out that P. candelabrum is a truly unique species then this new-found association with diamond-rich rocks may spell disaster. Mining for diamonds is a destructive process and if every population of P. candelabrum signals the potential for diamonds, then the future of this species lies in the balance of how much our species loves clear, shiny chunks of carbon. A bit unsettling if you ask me. 

Photo Credit: to.pbs.org/1NQUXqU

Further Reading:
http://econgeol.geoscienceworld.org/content/110/4/851.full

Hyperabundant Deer Populations Are Reducing Forest Diversity

Synthesizing the effects of white-tailed deer on the landscape have, until now, been difficult. Although strong sentiments are there, there really hasn't been a collective review that indicates if overabundant white-tailed deer populations are having a net impact on the ecosystem. A recent meta-analysis published in the Annals of Botany: Plant Science Research aimed to change that. What they have found is that the overabundance of deer is having strong negative impacts on forest understory plant communities in North America.

White-tailed deer have become a pervasive issue on this continent. With an estimated population of well over 30 million individuals, deer have been managed so well that they have reached proportions never seen on this continent in the past. The effects of this hyper abundance are felt all across the landscape. As anyone who gardens will tell you, deer are voracious eaters.

Tackling this issue isn't easy. Raising questions about proper management in the face of an ecological disaster that we have created can really put a divide in the room. Even some of you may be experiencing an uptick in your blood pressure simply by reading this. Feelings aside, the fact of the matter is overabundant deer are causing a decline in forest diversity. This is especially true for woody plant species. Deer browsing at such high levels can reduce woody plant diversity by upwards of 60%. Especially hard hit are seedlings and saplings. In many areas, forests are growing older without any young trees to replace them.

What's more, their selectivity when it comes to what's on the menu means that forests are becoming more homogenous. Grasses, sedges, and ferns are increasingly replacing herbaceous cover gobbled up by deer. Also, deer appear to prefer native plants over invasives, leaving behind a sea of plants that local wildlife can't readily utilize. It's not just plants that are affected either. Excessive deer browse is creating trophic cascades that propagate throughout the food web.

For instance, birds and plants are intricately linked. Flowers attract insects and eventually produce seeds. These in turn provide food for birds. Shrubs provide food as well as shelter and nesting space, a necessary requisite for healthy bird populations. Other studies have shown that in areas that experience the highest deer densities songbird populations are nearly 40% lower than in areas with smaller deer populations. As deer make short work of our native plants, they are hurting far more than just the plants themselves. Every plant that disappears from the landscape is one less plant that can support wildlife.

Sadly, due to the elimination of large predators from the landscape, deer have no natural checks and balances on their populations other than disease and starvation. As we replace natural areas with manicured lawns and gardens, we are only making the problem worse. Deer have adapted quite well to human disturbance, a fact not lost on anyone who has had their garden raided by these ungulates. Whereas the deer problem is only a piece of the puzzle when it comes to environmental issues, it is nonetheless a large one. With management practices aimed more towards trophy deer than healthy population numbers, it is likely this issue will only get worse.

Photo Credit: tuchodi (http://bit.ly/1wFYh2X)

Further Reading:
http://aobpla.oxfordjournals.org/content/7/plv119.full

http://aobpla.oxfordjournals.org/content/6/plu030.full

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320705001722

The Darth Vader Begonia

Cue the Imperial March, it is time to talk about the Darth Vader Begonia. This atramentous plant had only been known to the world since 2014. The discovery of this species (as well as two other new Begonia species) occured in Sarawak, on the island of Borneo. This region is a hot spot for plant diversity and this is especially true for begonias. A combination of diverse terrain and varied microclimates have led to an explosion of speciation events resulting in endemic species found nowhere else in the world.

With its leaves so deeply green that they almost appear black and deep red flowers it's not a stretch to imagine why this begonia has been named Begonia darthvaderiana. Until 2014, no one had ever laid eyes on this species, not even the locals. It was found growing in the deep shade of a forested cliff mixed in among other shade-loving vegetation. It is likely that the dark coloration of its leaves enables it to take advantage of what little sunlight makes it down to the forest floor.

Not long after its discovery was reported, something alarming happened. The so-called Darth Vader begonia began appearing for sale online. With a price tag of $80+, this is one expensive little plant. Apparently a plant poacher from Taiwan managed to smuggle some plants out of the country. This is especially upsetting because of its extreme rarity. Despite its namesake, the force is not strong enough to protect this species from greedy collectors. If you have somehow managed to obtain one of these plants, please do everything in your power to propagate it. Plants produced in captivity take pressure off of wild populations.

This was not the only new begonia species to be named after a Star Wars character. A larger species with green and silver leaves was given the scientific name of Begonia amidalae after Queen Amidala. It too is endemic to the region. The future of these plants as well as many others hangs in the balance. A growing human population is putting pressure on the rainforests of Borneo. As more and more forest is lost to development, countless endemic species are disappearing with it. This is yet another example of why land conservation is a must. Please consider lending your support to organizations such as the Rainforest Trust. Together, we can ensure that there are wild spaces left.

CLICK HERE TO HELP LAND CONSERVATION EFFORTS IN BORNEO

Photo Credit: Che-Wei Lin, Shih-Wen Chung, & Ching-I Peng

Further Reading: [1] [2]

 

Insect Eating Bats Eat More Insects Than Birds in Tropical Forests

11879205_10100918207052785_7207423359997217843_o.jpg

If the early bird gets the worm, it is only because we haven't been observing bats the right way, at least not in the rainforests of Central America. It has long been thought that insects such as katydids and caterpillars exhibit night feeding in order to escape day-active birds. This theory has influenced the way in which researchers investigate insect herbivory in tropical forests. However, recent studies have shown that bats, not birds, are doing the bulk of the insect eating in both natural and man-made habitats. 

In order to accurately investigate the role of insectivorous bats play in limiting herbivory in tropical forests, researchers decided to look at the common big-eared bat (Micronycteris microtis). They wanted to find out exactly how much insect predation could be attributed to these nocturnal hunters. As it turns out, 70% of the bats diet consists of plant eating insects, which is quite significant. Extrapolating upwards, it was apparent that we have been overlooking quite a bit.

Using special exclosures, researchers set out to try to quantify herbivory rates when bats and birds were excluded. What they found was staggering. When birds were excluded from hunting on trees, insect presence went up 65%. When bats were excluded, insect presence skyrocketed by 153%! What this amounts to is roughly three times as much damage to trees when bats are removed - a significant cost to forests. 

To prove that it wasn't only natural forests that were benefitting from the presence of bats, the researchers then replicated their experiments in an organic cacao farm. Again, bats proved to be the top insect predators, eating three times as many insects than birds. This amounts to massive economic benefits to farmers. Bats have long been viewed as the enemies of both the farm as well as the farmers. Research like this is starting to change such perspectives. 

This certainly doesn't diminish the role of birds in such systems. Instead, it serves to elevate bats to a more prominent stature in the healthy functioning of forest ecosystems. Findings such as these are changing the way we look at these furry fliers and hopefully improving our relationship as well. 

Photo Credit: Christian Ziegler - Wikimedia Commons

Further Reading: [1] [2]
 

The Smallest and Rarest Water Lily

Nymphaea thermarum is both the smallest and the rarest water lily in the world. It is so rare that it no longer exists in the wild. Back in 1987 it was discovered growing in the mud of a hot spring located in Rwanda, Africa. The botanist who discovered it, Eberhard Fischer, realized that it was quite rare and collected a few specimens to bring back to Germany. Indeed it has never been found growing anywhere else. This was a wise decision on his part because after decades of habitat degradation, the hot spring was destroyed by locals in order to divert water for laundry. 

For years, the original specimens were not doing so hot in captivity. It was looking like this species was going to be lost forever. That was until a handful of seedlings ended up in the hands of plant germination specialist Carlos Magdalena of the Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew. Carlos saw a challenge in this species and realized that his efforts could possibly be the last chance this species had at survival. 

Carlos tried many avenues of approach to growing this species and none seemed to be working. He messed with water chemistry, nutrients, and water depth, all the while the plants seemed to languish, never reaching maturity. In a final attempt to make things work, Carlos returned to the original literature. Here he found something interesting. Apparently, N. thermarum was not growing in water at all. Instead, it seemed to only grow in the wet mud surrounding the hot spring. 

This was the key that unlocked the door to propagating this species. Instead of growing this water lily submerged like every other water lily species, Carlos decided to grow the plants as they once grew in the wild, in mud. This was it! Carlos successfully grew 8 new plants to maturity. This may seem like a small amount but for the last remaining members of a species, every little bit counts. Recently in 2009, the first of Carlos's plants flowered. This marked a milestone for this species. While it has been wiped out in the wild, this species can still persist in cultivation until experts can decide on what the best course of action is for its future. 

Further Reading:
http://www.kew.org/science-conservation/plants-fungi/nymphaea-thermarum

On Orchids and Fungi

It is no secret that orchids absolutely need fungi. Fungi not only initiate germination of their nearly microscopic seeds, the mycorrhizal relationships they form supplies the fuel needed for seedling development. These mycorrhizal fungi also continue to keep adult orchids alive throughout their lifetime. In other words, without mycorrhizal fungi there are no orchids. Preserving orchids goes far beyond preserving the plant. Despite the importance of these below-ground partners, the requirements of many mycorrhizal fungi are poorly understood.

Researchers from the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center have recently shone some light on the needs of these fungi. Their findings highlight an important concept in ecology - conservation of the system, not just the organism. Their results clearly indicate that orchid conservation requires old, intact forests.

Their experiment was beautifully designed. They added seeds and host fungi to dozens of plots in both young (50 - 70 years old) and old (120-150 years old) forests. They continued to monitor the progress of the seeds over a period of 4 years. Orchid seeds only germinated in plots where their host fungi were added. This, of course, was not very surprising.

The most interesting data they collected was data on fungal performance. As it turns out, the host fungi displayed a marked preference for older forests. In fact, the fungi were 12 times more abundant in these plots. They were even growing in areas where the researchers had not added them. What's more, fungal species were more diverse in older forests.

The researchers also noted that host fungi grew better and were more diverse in plots where rotting wood was added. This is because many mycorrhizal fungi are primarily wood decomposers. Nutrients from the decomposition of this wood are then channeled to growing orchids (as well as countless other plant species) in return for carbohydrates from photosynthesis. It is a wonderful system that functions at its best in mature forests.

This research highlights the need to protect and preserve old growth forests more than ever. Replanting forests is wonderful but it may be centuries before these forests can ever support such a diversity of life. Also, this stands as a stark reminder of the importance of soil conservation. Less obvious to most is the importance of decomposition. Without dead plant material, such fungal communities would have nothing to eat. Clearing a forest of dead wood can be just as detrimental in the long run as clearing it of living trees.

Research like this is made possible by the support of organizations such as the Native North American Orchid Conservation Center. Head on over to www.indefenseofplants.com/shop and pick up an In Defense of Plants sticker. Part of the proceeds are donated to this wonderful organization, which helps support research such as this! As this research highlights: What is good for orchids is good for the ecosystem.

Further Reading:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2012.05468.x/abstract;jsessionid=3385C965FF5BA4CB83290005DFD47FD1.f01t02

The Plight of the Venus Fly Trap

The fact that endangered plants do not receive the same protection as animals speaks volumes towards our perception of their importance. If one were to gun down an endangered bird, regardless of where it happened, they would likely face jail time. This is a good thing. However, regardless of how endangered a plant may be, as long as it is on private property and written consent is given by the land owner, one can harvest to their hearts content. It could be the last population in existence. The point of the matter is, endangered plants only receive protection on federal lands. Even then, enforcement is difficult at best. 

Plant poaching is serious business. The victims are usually pretty species like orchids or valuable species like American ginseng. The rarer something is, the higher the price. Someone will always be willing to pay top dollar to add something rare to their collection. This story is repeated time and time again throughout the world but one particularly interesting example centers on a plant that most people are familiar with and have probably attempted to grow at one point in their lives - the Venus fly trap (Dionaea muscipula).

It may be counter intuitive to believe that a plant so often sold in grocery stores could be in trouble but the Venus flytrap truly is. In the wild, Venus fly traps are what we call endemics. They are native to a small portion of land in the Carolinas and nowhere else. Sadly, the long leaf pine savannahs and Carolina bays that they call home are being gobbled up by golf courses, pine plantations, and housing developments. The Venus fly trap (as well as over 100 other endangered species) are quickly losing the only habitat in the world that they exist. 

Of the 107 Venus fly trap populations that remain, only 65 of them are located on protected land. If habitat destruction wasn't enough, plant collectors, both legal and illegal, descend upon this region to get their hands on wild fly traps. This, my friends, is the definition of stupidity and greed. A simple internet search will turn up countless hobbyists and nurseries alike that culture these plants in captivity. It isn't very hard to do and it can be done on a massive scale. 

There is simply no reason to have to harvest Venus fly traps from the wild. None. Despite the plight of this unique species, legal protection of the Venus fly trap is almost non existent. It is listed as a "species of special concern" in North Carolina, which basically means nothing. For poachers, this really doesn't matter. Thousands of plants are stolen from the wild on protected and unprotected lands alike. Recent felony charges against Venus fly trap poachers offer some hope that the situation may be changing but that still does nothing to protect plants that, through senseless loopholes, are collected legally. 

This circles back to those plants we often see for sale in grocery stores. If they are in a red pot with a clear plastic cup on top, you can almost guarantee they came from the Fly-Trap Farm. This company openly admits to buying and selling plants collected from the wild. Despite the afore mentioned fact that culturing them in captivity is done with relative ease, the demand for these carnivorous curiosities coupled with their perceived disposability means that wild populations of this already threatened plant are growing smaller and smaller. 

Venus fly traps are endemics. They grow nowhere else in the world. If their habitat is destroyed and demand for wild plants continues, there is no Plan B. This species will be lost to the world forever. Again, there is no reason to buy wild collected plants. Plenty of hobbyists and nurseries such as The Carnivore Girl, Meadowview Biological Research Station, and California Carnivores (just to name a few) offer reasonably priced cultivated Venus fly traps. Whereas it is difficult or even impossible to squash poaching for good, we as consumers can always vote with our wallets. 

It is tough to say whether or not there is hope for the Venus fly trap and its neighbors. This region of the Carolinas is growing in its human population. So many Venus fly trap populations have already been lost forever and more are likely to disappear in the near future. There may be hope, however, and it comes in the form of land protection. Recent acquisitions of large tracts of Venus fly trap habitat are promising. Regardless, unless the public speaks up about the plight of these long leaf pine savannahs and Carolina bays, no one is going to listen. Plants deserve the same protection as animals. Heck, we wouldn't have any cute and fuzzy megafauna if it were not for healthy plant populations. Protecting plants needs to be a priority. 

Photo Credit: NC Orchid (http://bit.ly/1MUlE0x)

Further Reading:
http://archive.audubonmagazine.org/features0803/carnivorousplants.html

http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/39636/0

http://wunc.org/post/north-carolina-enacts-venus-flytrap-theft-laws-how-big-problem-really#stream/0