Begonia's Hawaiian Cousin

Begoniaceae is a strange family. It consists of two genera - Begonia, which comprises roughly 1,400 species, and Hillebrandia, which consists of a single species endemic to Hawai'i (Symbegonia has since been placed back into Begonia). Although I adore the entire family, its that single genus that is the focus of our attention today. Far from being a strange one-off, Hillebrandia has a fascinating evolutionary history.

The sole species, Hillebrandia sandwicensis, is the only member of the family native to Hawai'i. It differs from the genus Begonia in characters such as its petals, which are more numerous and more differentiated, its ovaries, which do not completely close, as well as various morphological characteristics of its fruit and pollen, which I won't go into here. It occurs naturally only on the islands of Kauai, Maui, and Molokai where it inhabits wet ravines in montane rainforest zones. Nowhere is this species considered abundant. 

Since its discovery in 1866, H. sandwicensis has been the object of much curiosity. Where did it originate? How old of a species is it? How did it get to Hawai'i? Thanks to some molecular work, a few of these questions are becoming a bit more clear. For starters, we can now confidently say that Hillebrandia is a sister lineage to all other Begonias. This in turn has provided a crucial step in our understanding of its biogeography.

Molecular dating techniques place the genus Hillebrandia at about 51–65 million years old, much older than any of the Hawaiian islands. As such, it is likely that this lineage is not the results of an adaptive radiation like we see in most of the archipelago's flora and fauna. Instead, it is now believed that H. sandwicensis is the only known relict species in Hawaiian flora. In other words, the ancestor of H. sandwicensis did not arrive at Hawai'i and then evolve into the species we know today. Instead, it is more likely that the lineage arose elsewhere and then, through a random long-distance seed dispersal event, made it to Hawai'i's oldest islands some 30 million years ago and has been island hopping to younger islands ever since. 

Although its recent history and geographic origins are still open to much speculation, the story of this unique genus has gotten a bit clearer. Its status as Hawai'i's only known relict plant species is quite exciting to say the least. What we can say for sure is that its history was likely full of serendipity that should be celebrated each time someone has an encounter with this lovely Hawaiian plant.

Photo Credits: [1] [2]

Further Reading: [1]

 

 

 

 

Pseudoanthry

I learned a new word today - "pseudoanthery." This term applies to a structure or organ on a nectarless flower that mimics a dehiscent anther. To elaborate further, a dehiscent anther is one in which a capsule containing pollen breaks open to reveal the pollen inside. For example, think of the anthers of an Asiatic lily. Back to the topic at hand.

I quite like learning new things, especially as it applies to familiar friends. I was admiring the floral display of a rather tall cane begonia when a friend of mine came up to me and simply said "pseudoanthery." I didn't quite catch it the first time so I asked him to repeat it. It wasn't hard to guess the root meaning of the word - fake anther. Confusion set in when I pointed out that I was looking at the female flowers of a begonia. Thus, a teaching moment presented itself.

Though I adore Begonias and have a small handful growing in my house at all times, I never stopped to think much about their pollination. Without a doubt, they can be quite showy. Even the smaller species can put on quite a floral show. Rarely have I ever detected a scent from a Begonia bloom, nor have I ever detected nectar (though that's not to say either of those qualities don't exist). The point I am trying to make is that I couldn't quite figure out their strategy.

Sure, male flowers contain copious amounts of pollen. That is incentive enough to visit a male bloom. But what about the female flowers? Do they get away with not offering any sort of reward by simply being showy? Certainly that helps, however, female Begonia flowers sweeten the ruse with a bit of mimicry.

That is where the term pseudoanthery applies. Take a close look at the stigma of a begonia flower and you will be marveled by its intricate structure and bright coloration. As it turns out, the stigma is shaped in such a way as to mimic the pollen covered anthers of male flowers. Insects looking for protein rich pollen with visit the female flowers, realize it was all for naught, and move on. That is all the female flowers require. While the insect was busy searching for pollen, it is very likely that the bristly hairs on the stigma were able to pick up pollen grains from the insect's previous visit. With a little luck, that flower was a male begonia.

This ruse works best at large numbers. By producing lots of male flowers and considerably fewer female flowers, Begonias can ensure that the insects are not deterred by the lack of rewards. This has a double benefit for the plant as female flowers and seeds can be costly to produce.

Quite fascinating if I do say so myself. I have looked at countless Begonia flowers and not once did I question their structure. Just goes to show you that even old friends can teach us new things.

Further Reading: [1] [2]